A cereal grain with tiny, round yellow kernels that tastes slightly nutty and has a chewy texture. Store millet in an airtight container in a cool, dry place for up to two years.

The cereal grain produced by the cereal grass of the same name. Whole oats minus the hulls are called groats. Oats have a nutty flavor and a chewy texture. Store oats in an airtight container in a cool, dry place for up to six months, or freeze for up to one year. Two popular forms include old-fashioned and quick-cooking oats.

Old-fashioned rolled oats
Oat groats that have been steamed then flattened by steel rollers.

The skin or outer covering of a vegetable or fruit; also called the rind. Also refers to removing the covering.

To force a semisoft food, such as whipped cream, frosting, or mashed potatoes, through a hole in a bag to decorate a food.

To allow a food, such as raisins or dried cherries, to soak in a liquid.

To allow a yeast dough to rise before baking. Also a term that indicates the amount of alcohol in a distilled liquor.

To change a solid food into a liquid or heavy paste, usually by using a food processor, blender, or food mill. Also refers to the resulting mixture.

Quick-cooking rolled oats
Oat groats that have been cut into small pieces — to shorten the cooking time — then flattened.

A fresh, moist white cheese that is very mild and semisweet. It has a soft, slightly grainy texture. It is available in whole milk, part-skim milk, or fat-free varieties: the whole milk cheese has a creamier consistency and fuller flavor than the lower-fat types.

To form a food into a shape. Dough, for instance, can be rolled into ropes or balls. The phrase “roll out” refers to mechanically flattening a food — usually a dough or pastry — with a rolling pin.

Rye flour
Made from finely ground rye, a cereal grain that has dark brown kernels and a distinctive, robust flavor. Light rye flour is sifted and contains less bran than dark rye flour. Store rye flour in an airtight container in a cool, dry place for up to five months, or freeze for up to one year.

A pulpy segment of citrus fruit with the membrane removed. Also refers to the process of removing those segments.

Shortening is a solid fat made from vegetable oils. It is often used to create tender, flaky piecrusts and biscuit toppers. It comes packaged in sticks marked with tablespoon and cup measurements and in canisters.

To put one or more dry ingredients, especially flour or powdered sugar, through a sifter or sieve to remove lumps and incorporate air.

To cook a food in liquid that is kept below the boiling point; a few bubbles will form slowly and burst before they reach the surface.

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