A taking in or
preparation, by molecular and or physical action.
The property of flour to absorb and hold liquid.
sourness or tartness in food product, the condition
indicating excess fermentation in yeast dough. Also
a factor used with soda to generate co2 for
leavening of cake.
treatment of dough or batter by charging with gas to
produce a volume increase.
ground to a paste with sugar.
various species of which are considered in
fermentation and spoilage of food.
cook or roast by dry heat
in a closed place such as oven.
A chemical leavening agent composed of soda dry
acids and corn starch; when wet and heated carbon
dioxide is given off to raise the batter during
biscuits made in oblong or rectangular shape.
homogeneous mixture of ingredients with liquid to
make a mass that is of soft elastic character.
applied to dough that has been cut and left unsealed
at the cut thus permitting the escape of leavening
bubble, emitting vapor, when heat is applied 100C or
of ground grain to remove the bran and coarse
made by boiling sugar and H2O to thread state
albumen with additional beating.
or flexible dull edged knife used for scraping
batter or dough from bowl sides.
mass of ingredients used for making bread.
from standards of perfection used to determine wrong
factors in the bread production method.
shapes of bread dough slightly sweetened and
sweet dough cut and shaped like horns.
BUTTER CREAM FROSTING-Rich
uncooked frosting containing powdered sugar butter
and other shortening and whipped to a plastic
made from sponge cake batter to which shortening has
flavor product by the use of butter and brown sugar.
term refers to flour that has been treated by a
chemical to remove its natural color and make it
product obtained by baking a leavened and shortened
batter containing flour, sugar, egg, milk, liquid,
flavoring, shortening and leavening agent.
from the standards of perfection for the type of
sugar heated with constant stirring until melted and
dark in colors, used for flavoring and color.
Sugars and starches
derived chiefly from fruits and vegetables sources
that contain set amount of carbon, hydrogen and
agent made from ammonia and carbonic acid.
of a spice plant used for flavorings.
principle nitrogenous or protein part of milk.
aromatic bark of trees of the laurel family, ground
and used as flavorings.
sweetened rind of fruit.
grade and high ash content flour remaining after the
patent flour has been separated.
powder made from chocolate from which part of the
cocoa butter has been extracted.
inside meat of the coconut shredded or grated.
yeast leavened dough made in various shapes with
produced by the use of dyes.
the big industries certain mixtures of fats and
at which a liquid changes to plastic or a solid.
meal made by grinding corn.
drained curd of soured or coagulated creamy pressed
and mixed until smooth.
fat portion of cows milk also used for pies and
–crust pies having cream filling usually topped with
whipped cream or margarine.
puffs of cream puff dough that are hollow usually
filled with whipped cream or cooked puffs.
crusted rolls shaped into crescent often with seeds
mis-shapen, burnt or
otherwise undesirable unit.
twisted baking powder dough nuts.
of dry crust on surface of doughnuts due to
evaporation of water from the surface.
cups of layer cake batter baked in muffin pans.
acidulous berry of a shrub, usually dried.
sweetened mixture of eggs and milk that is baked or
cooked oven hot water.
yeast dough having butter or shortening rolled into
fruits of a species of palm.
cooked blend of dates, water and sugar.
enzyme possessing the power to convert starches into
dextrose and maltose.
bring a solid in a solvent.
machine used to cut into a desired or weight.
a no of vertical impressions in dough with a smooth
stick about the size of a pencil or smaller.
thickened mass of combined ingredients for bread
rolls and biscuits but usually applied to bread.
chemical product added to alter flour in its
properties to hold gas.
from which most of the moisture
have been removed by drying.
from which the water has been removed by drying.
form of yeast.
long thin shell of the same paste as cream puffs.
process of blending together fat and water solutions
of the ingredients to produce a stable mixture that
will not separate on standing.
made from enriched flour and containing prescribed
amounts of vitamins and minerals.
substance produced by living organisms that has the
power to bring about changes in organic materials.
canned milk from which water has been removed before
of fruits of species used for flavorings.
chemical changes of an organism compound due to
action of living organisms.
creams, jams, etc placed between baked layers in
cakes or shaped into yeast raised products.
bun about 5in. long and 1in. wide.
emulsion, extract, or spice used to produce a
ground meal of grain.
referring to the proportion of the wheat that
mass of beaten egg white air and crushed fruit.
Mass of beaten egg and
sugar as in sponge cake before the flour is added.
moisture content sugar syrup containing a small
quantity of sugar that has been rapidly cooled so
that the sugar crystals are mall in size.
crusty bread, baked in narrow strip and containing
little or no shortening.
long knife with a pointed blade used in cutting
cakes, dough and nuts.
in deep fat.
part of the seed from which plant grows.
spicy root of a tropical plant used for flavoring.
so treated as to resemble ice.
of the two proteins comprising gluten that provides
simply sugar made by action of acid on starch.
of the two proteins comprising gluten, which gives
ground whole-wheat flour.
a film of fat on a surface.
HARDNESS OF WATER-A
measure of minerals salts in greater amounts than
found in soft water.
Bakery related FAQs
Q. What do you
understand by the term ‘syneresis’
in relation to bread?
is the name given to a particular physical change
that takes place in starch, gels etc., as they age
.It is this change that brings about the staling of
bread that is a day or two old, a sensation
suggesting that bread contain less moisture. This
change in starch is known as ‘syneresis’.It is
affected by conditions of humidity and temperature
which bread is stored.
Q. Why is salt used in
Salt is used because (a)Of
its beneficial influence on flavour (b)It
strengthens and stabilizes gluten thus giving bulk
to the loaf (c)It prevents excessive action of yeast
(d)It hampers the action of harmful bacteria which
could spoil the flavour.
Q. Why is bread dough
knocked back once, sometimes twice during
When dough is knocked
back, fresh supply of oxygen is given to the yeast,
enabling it to work more vigorously and the excess
of CO2 is driven off. During knocking back, the
films of gluten are sub-divided and thus better
distributed through the dough. It also helps to
relax the strained gluten strands. The texture of
bread is improved when the dough is knocked back.
Q. What happens to cake
batters when put into the oven?
As soon as the oven
door is closed on the cakes, the heat commences to
melt the fat from the outside of the cake towards
the inside. If the raising agent is present, CO2 is
evolved. As the temperature continues to rise, some
of the starch cells begin to gelatinize. A skin
forms on the top and begins to color rapidly due to
the Caramalization of sugar. The batter now begins
to rise. Egg coagulates and becomes firm. Gluten
strands are strengthened. The entire product sets
cooked to a firm sponge. Check for a cooked
cake-press the top lightly if it springs back, it is
Q. Why is dough
covered with a wet cloth?
The temperature of
dough is usually higher than the air that surrounds
it. A wet cloth aids in steadying the temperature
and thus stabilizes the fermentation. If left
uncovered, the dough will warm. If left uncovered,
the dough will warm the air immediately in contact
with it causing it to expand and rise. As this air
rises, a current of fresh air comes in contact with
the surface of the dough and dries it. A Skin is
formed on the dough that leaves unsightly patches
Q. Why should all
materials used in cake making be approximately the
By keeping all
materials at similar temperature better aeration
takes place, better and more through amalgamation is
possible.Consequently, cakes will have a better
appearance, volume and texture, Batters made with
ingredients of different temperature become tough
Q. Why do cake batters
Cake batters ‘curdle’
when the fat separates from the water in the mixture
and breaks the emulsion. It can occur due to hasty
preparation and quick addition of eggs or if hard
fat is used or too many eggs are used or fat
contains too much water.
Q. Why do cakes
sometimes sink in the center?
Cakes tend to sink in
the middle because of:
*Too much handling
*Too much baking powder
*Too much fat and sugar
(in relation to flour)
*If it is removed from
the oven before it is cooked (center is in a liquid
state or a semi-liquid state)
Q. why do cherries and
the other such like fruits tend to sink in a
To prevent cherries
from sinking in a fruitcake, make sure that they are
dry. Remove any excess syrup by drying thoroughly.
Coat the cherries and the other fruits with flour to
prevent them from sinking. Fruits could also sink if
the batter is too light and cannot support the fruit
and also if the flour is too weak (low gluten
Q. Why is puff pastry
allowed to stand for half-hour after cutting and
After a lot of rolling
and flooding during manufacture, it is obvious that
there will still be considerable strength in the
gluten as well as elasticity. This elasticity will
cause the paste to draw up if it not allowed a good
rest before cooking. If it immediately baked, the
heat would soften it because of its decreased
resistance to the pull exerted by the gluten and
mis-shapen.In some cases
the filling could ooze out.
Q. Why is lemon juice
or cream of tartar is added to flour while making
An acid medium is added
to puff pastry because: 1) The acid makes the gluten
in flour more pliable and extensible and improves
the ability to retain steam. 2) Acid refuses the pH
and thus aid the pastry in acquiring greater volume
and the layers become more numerous, thinner and
Q. Why should the dough
and fat be of approximately the same consistency
whilst baking puff pastry?
Dough and fat should be
of the same consistency because, if not. when
rolling, whichever is soften will be rolled much
thinner, but if they are both same, dough and fat
will be rolled to a similar extent and thickness?
Q. What factors control
the volume of choux pastry?
Egg albumin is
extensible and will be inflated by the internal
pressure of the gases, air and steam. Thus the
pastry increases in volume and expansion causes when
egg albumin fiber loses their extensibility and gas
holding power. Thus the volume of choux pastry will
depend only slightly upon the strength of the gluten
in flour; but largely on the gas holding power of
egg protein (albumin).
Q. Why are stale egg
whites recommended for the making of meringues?
Stale eggs whites have
less water due to evaporation hence they whip
better. However, old egg whites should not be used.
By stale egg whites, we mean fresh eggs exposed to
air upon being broken and separated.
Q. Why do Swiss rolls
crack when rolled?
Swiss rolls sometimes
crack when being rolled?
1) To little eggs,
hence less moisture, hence pliable.
2) Uneven spreading of
butters thus having thick and thin regions that
3) Warped baking sheet
4) Wrong baking sheet
5) Too hard flour
6) Too much mixture
placed on tray, hence too thick a cake.