Browning sugar over a flame, with or without the addition of some water to aid the process. The temperature range in which sugar caramelizes is approximately 320º F to 360º F (160º C to 182º C).Chiffon
Pie filling made light and fluffy with stabilized gelatin and beaten egg whites.Chop
To cut into irregular pieces.Clarify
Remove impurities from butter or stock by heating the liquid, then straining or skimming it.
To evenly cover food with flour, crumbs, or a batter.
A cooking method in which foods (such as eggs) are put in separate containers and placed in a pan of simmering water for slow, gentle cooking.
To blend two or more ingredients into a single mixture.
To slowly cook pieces of meat in their own gently rendered fat.
To remove the inedible center of fruits such as pineapples.
To beat vegetable shortening, butter, or margarine, with or without sugar, until light and fluffy. This process traps in air bubbles, later used to create height in cookies and cakes.
To create a decorative edge on a piecrust. On a double piecrust, this also seals the edges together.
To restore the crunch to foods; vegetables such as celery and carrots can be crisped with an ice water bath, and foods such as stale crackers can be heated in a medium oven.
To condense a food to its smallest particles, usually using a mortar and pestle or a rolling pin.
To form sugar- or honey-based syrups into crystals. The term also describes the coating.
Custard-like pie or tart filling flavored with juice and zest of citrus fruit, usually lemon, although lime and orange may also be used.
To cause semisolid pieces of coagulated protein to develop in food, usually as a result of the addition of an acid substance, or the overheating of milk or egg-based sauces.
To preserve or add flavor with an ingredient, usually salt and/or sugar.
A mixture of beaten egg, milk, and possibly other ingredients such as sweet or savory flavorings, which is cooked with gentle heat, often in a water bath or double boiler. As pie filling, the custard is frequently cooked and chilled before being layered into a prebaked crust.
To work vegetable shortening, margarine, or butter into dry ingredients.
A measure approximately equal to 1/16 teaspoon.
To completely submerge the food in hot oil.
To add liquid to a pan in which foods have been fried or roasted, in order to dissolve the caramelized juices stuck to the bottom of the pan.
To add hot or spicy ingredients such as cayenne pepper or Tabasco sauce to a food.
To cut into cubes.
A cooking method that allows heat to meet food directly, such as grilling, broiling, or toasting.
To sprinkle food with small bits of an ingredient such as butter to allow for even melting.
A combination of ingredients including flour, water or milk, and, sometimes, a leavener, producing a firm but workable mixture for making baked goods.
To sprinkle lightly and evenly with sugar or flour. A dredger has holes pierced on the lid to sprinkle evenly.
To pour a liquid such as a sweet glaze or melted butter in a slow, light trickle over food.
Used for gravies and sauces, drippings are the liquids left in the bottom of a roasting or frying pan after meat is cooked.
To sprinkle food lightly with spices, sugar, or flour for a light coating.