Growth of QSR industry
Growth to be driven by outlet expansions
The QSR industry’s growth over the next three years will be primarily propelled by an average 16-18 per cent growth in store additions. During this period, same-store sales growth will be muted, averaging 6-8 per cent (significantly lower than 12-15 per cent average of last three years). We expect same-store sales to remain lower in the near-term but pick up later.
Established players are expected to account for about two-thirds of store additions. Among the established QSR chains, foreign players, namely Domino’s Pizza, Subway, McDonald’s, KFC and Pizza Hut, are together expected to comprise about 40 per cent of overall store additions. The contribution of relatively new entrants will also be significant at over 30 per cent share; brands such as Dunkin Donuts and Krispy Kreme that have entered the market in the past two years are expected to rapidly expand their store network. Players such as Burger King, Wendy’s and Johnny Rockets are slated to enter the market as well.
In the case of same-store sales, growth will largely be from price hikes; QSRs have been raising prices by 5-6 per cent annually. However, average transactions per outlet will stay relatively flat mainly due to a more mature store profile (stores operating for over two years) for the bigger brands and higher competition. New entrants, though, could see an increase in transactions per outlet.
Same-store sales growth to pick up; historical levels unlikely
Same-store sales growth, which was robust at 20-25 per cent in 2010-11 and 2011-12, plummeted in 2012-13 and 2013-14. Cannibalisation due to opening of multiple outlets in the same catchment area, stiff competition, and economic slowdown leading to decline in discretionary spending, coupled with high food inflation, impacted same-store sales. Same-store sales of both Jubilant FoodWorks (master franchisee for Dominos and Dunkin Donuts in India) and Hardcastle Restaurants (franchisee for McDonald’s in the south and west) edged lower by 2 per cent and 9 per cent, respectively, in the first quarter of 2014-15 compared to growth rates of 25-30 per cent in 2011-12. Yum Restaurants India divisions’ same-store sales dipped by 4 per cent during the July-September 2014 quarter.
Same-store sales of Dominos and McDonald’s declining
CRISIL Research expects same-store sales to gradually pick up, aided by improvement in discretionary spending triggered by economic recovery: after a sub-5 per cent growth rate for two consecutive years, the Indian economy is expected to pick up in 2014-15 and 2015-16.
However, same-store sales growth will not rebound to historic levels of 20-25 per cent because of increasing competition and cannibalisation, especially in metros and tier I cities. Also, a mature store profile will limit any sharp improvement in same-store sales growth for the established brands – close to two-thirds of the total stores for larger brands such as McDonald’s and Domino’s are more than two years old. Hence, large QSR chains have been gradually moving to tier II and III cities, where competition is limited.
Foreign brands to maintain dominant position
Foreign brands dominate the QSR industry with over 60 per cent market share (in terms of number of outlets). In terms of value, the market share of foreign brands is higher vis-à-vis domestic brands as most have better average transaction size as well as number of transactions per outlet. The strong brand image and larger store area allows foreign brands to cater to larger number of customers.
Riding on the success of these international brands, the Indian market also witnessed the emergence of domestic brands such as Jumbo King, Goli Vadapav, Faaso’s, Kaati Zone, Yo! China and Smokin’ Joes. However, most domestic players have been struggling to adapt to the quick service format.
Over the next three years, CRISIL Research does not expect a drastic change in the ratio of Indian and foreign QSR brands.
Foreign brands have been successful in tier I cities and are now expanding rapidly into tier II cities. These brands typically operate through the franchise model, which is an efficient way to scale up operations as it reduces capital burden.
By contrast, Indian brands are finding it difficult to scale up operations. Over the last two years, store additions of Indian brands were a mere one-tenth that of foreign brands. Some Indian brands such as Fasoo’s revamped their strategy to achieve scalability. Indian players need to build their brand image; one of the tools to do this is by ensuring standardisation across product offerings by efficiently managing the logistics chain.
Foreign cuisines more adaptable to QSR format
Foreign cuisines have a dominant share of the QSR market due to easier adaptability to the cold storage format and their quick-to-serve nature; pizzas, burgers and sandwiches account for about 85 per cent of the total market size in value terms. Indian food, which is prepared through complex processes using several ingredients, is difficult to translate into an assembly line production model. However, domestic players such as Goli Vada Pav and JumboKing are trying to adopt the successfully implemented cold storage model to their domestic cuisines.
Market share break-up based on cuisines 2013-14E (value terms)
Interestingly, many players are also adding new products to their menus. A case in point is Domino’s Pizza, which launched wraps in May 2014. McDonald’s also now offers wraps. At Pizza Hut, non-pizza menu comprises about 50 per cent of the menu.
Severe competition in QSR especially in metros / tier I cities
The Indian QSR market is highly competitive where players compete through core offerings and product variations not just among the organised segment but also among the huge unorganised market. Customers now even have various options and preferences to choose from.
The degree of competition can be understood by the fact that the same brand has multiple stores catering to the same micromarket, in addition to the presence of other QSR brands serving similar food. One such instance is the presence of two stores of the same brand in a single mall, one for dine-in and the other for delivery.
Competition in the burger segment will also increase with large global players, namely Burger King, Fatburger, Wendys and Johnny Rockets, expected to enter the market. Johnny Rockets recently opened an outlet in Delhi and Gurgaon. The US burger chain, Burger King, plans to open stores in Mumbai and Delhi this year through the franchisee route. American burger chain, Fatburger, has appointed Vazz Foods as its master franchise in India.
In the donuts segment, Mad over Donuts was enjoying a near monopoly in India since its entry in 2008. However, the entry of Dunkin Donuts and Krispy Kreme has increased competition within this category as well. Dunkin Donuts, which sells burgers and donuts, entered India in January 2013. Krispy Kreme recently entered India through a franchise agreement with Citymax Hotels India Pvt. Ltd.
Foreign chains move towards tier II, III, new entrants – metros
Having set up operations in the metros, large chains such as Domino’s and McDonald’s are increasingly expanding their presence in tier II and III cities. Over the last one year, Domino’s strengthened its presence in cities such as Bhiwadi (Rajasthan), Korba (Chhattisgarh), Rajahmundry (Andhra Pradesh), Aligarh (Uttar Pradesh), Hoshiarpur (Punjab), Belgaum (Karnataka), Dharamshala (Himachal Pradesh) and Rangpo (Sikkim). Over the last one-and-a-half years, Hardcastle (McDonald’s) has opened outlets in tier II cities such as Coimbatore, Mysore, and Kochi in the south and Rajkot and Mehsana in the west.
Such expansions help utilisation of cheaper real estate in smaller cities, but also allow large chains enter relatively untapped markets. Opening outlets near highways allows the large chains to draw benefits from cheaper real estate and cater to customers who are constantly on the move. However, the relatively new entrants, especially the domestic QSR brands, will remain focussed on bigger cities to establish their presence and enhance brand recall.
Going forward, we expect QSR growth to be higher in tier II and III cities owing to the huge opportunity to expand in these markets. With metros already saturated, we expect major expansion to take place in tier II and III cities. As disposable incomes in semi-urban areas have increased and aspirations to experience brands have gained momentum, there is good potential in tier II and III cities. Hardcastle Restaurants, the master franchisee for western and southern India for McDonald’s, plans to invest about Rs 7 billion over the next five years to expand its restaurant network primarily focussing on tier II and III cities.
Food & Accompaniments Presentation Transcript Food & Accompaniments Accompaniments are highly flavoured seasonings of various kinds offered with certain dishes. The object of offering accompaniments with dishes is to improve the flavour of the food or to counteract its richness or texture. HORSD’OEUVRES HOR SD’OEUVRES HORSD’OEUVR’ES HOR SD’OEUVRES GRAPEFRUIT COCKTAIL: SERVED WITH: CASTOR SUGAR HORSD’OEUVR’ES HOR SD’OEUVRES TOMATO JUICE: SERVED WITH: WORCESTERSHIRE SAUCE HORSD’OEUVR’ES HOR SD’OEUVRES OYSTERS : SERVED WITH: CAYENNE PEPPER PEPPER MILL CHILLI VINEGAR TABASCO SAUCE LEMON WEDGE BROWN BREAD & BUTTER SNAILS : SERVED WITH: BROWN BREAD & BUTTER HORSD’OEUVRES HOR SD’OEUVRES SHRIMPS: SERVED WITH: CAYENNE PEPPER PEPPER MILL LEMON WEDGES HOT BREAKFAST TOAST HORSD’OEUVRES HOR SD’OEUVRES HAM MOUSSE: SERVED WITH: HOT BREAKFAST TOAST HORSD’OEUVRES HOR SD’OEUVRES GULL’S EGG SERVED WITH: BROWN BREAD & BUTTER ORIENTAL SALT HORSD’OEUVRES HOR SD’OEUVRES SMOKED SALMON SERVED WITH: CAYENNE PEPPER PEPPER MILL LEMON WEDGE BROWN BREAD & BUTTER HORSD’OEUVRES HOR SD’OEUVRES ASPARAGUS: SERVED WITH: HOLLANDAISE SAUCE (IF HOT) VINAIGRETTE (IF COLD) HORSD’OEUVRES HOR SD’OEUVRES GLOBE ARTICHOKE HOLLANDAISE SAUCE (IF HOT) VINAIGRETTE (IF COLD) HORSD’OEUVRES HOR SD’OEUVRES CORN ON THE COB SERVED WITH: BEURRE FONDUE HORSD’OEUVRES HOR SD’OEUVRES FRESH PRAWNS SERVED WITH: BROWN BREAD & BUTTER MAYONNAISE SAUCE HORSD’OEUVRES HOR SD’OEUVRES CHILLED MELON SERVED WITH: GROUND GINGER CASTOR SUGAR HORSD’OEUVRES HOR SD’OEUVRES AVACADO SERVED WITH: BROWN BREAD & BUTTER HORSD’OEUVRES HOR SD’OEUVRES SHELLFISH COCKTAIL SERVED WITH: BROWN BREAD & BUTTER HORSD’OEUVRES HOR SD’OEUVRES SOUP CRÈME DE TOMATE SERVED WITH: CROUTONS CONSOMME SERVED WITH: DEPENDING ON GARNISH FRENCH ONION SOUP SERVED WITH: GRATED PARMESAN CHEESE GRILLED FLUTES PETITE MARMITE SERVED WITH: GRATED PARMESAN CHEESE GRILLED FLUTES POACHED BONE MARROW POTAGE GERMINY SERVED WITH: CHEESE STRAWS BOUILLABASSE SERVED WITH: THIN SLICES OF FRENCH BREAD DIPPED IN OIL AND GRILLED BORTSCH SERVED WITH: SOUR CREAM BEETROOT JUICE BOUCHEES FILLED WITH DUCK PASTE TURTLE SOUP SERVED WITH: BROWN BREAD & BUTTER SEGMENTS OF LEMON CHEESE STRAWS MEASURE OF SHERRY FISH & SEA FOOD FRIED FISH SERVED WITH: SEGMENTS OF LEMON, SAUCES: TARTARE, REMOULADE, GRIBICHE GRILLED FISH SERVED WITH: SEGMENTS OF LEMON, COLD SAUCES: TARTARE, REMOULADE, GRIBICHE HOT SAUCES: BEARNAISE, TYROLIENNE POACHED FISH SERVED WITH: SEGMENTS OF LEMON, COLD SAUCES: TARTARE, REMOULADE, GRIBICHE HOT SAUCES: HOLLANDAISE, MOUSSELINE GRILLED HERRING SERVED WITH: MUSTARD SAUCE POACHED SALMON SERVED WITH: HOLLANDAISE SAUCE MOUSSELINE SAUCE MUSSELS SERVED WITH: BROWN BREAD & BUTTER, CAYENNE PEPPER CRAWFISH SERVED WITH: MAYONNAISE SAUCE COLD LOBSTER SERVED WITH: MAYONNAISE SAUCE FARINACEOUS SPAGHETTI SERVED WITH: GRATED PARMESAN CHEESE MEAT CURRY SERVED WITH: POPPADAMS, PAN CAKES ROAST BEEF SERVED WITH: ENGLISH/FRENCH MUSTARD, HORSERADISH SAUCE, YORKSHIRE PUDDING, ROAST GRAVY ROAST LAMB SERVED WITH: MINT SAUCE. ROAST GRAVY ROAST PORK SERVED WITH: SAGE & ONION STUFFING, APPLE SAUCE, ROAST GRAVY BOILED MUTTON SERVED WITH: CAPER SAUCE SALTED BEEF SERVED WITH: TURNED ROOT VEGETABLES, DUMPLINGS, NATURAL COOKING LIQUOR BOILED FRESH BEEF SERVED WITH: TURNED ROOT VEGETABLES, NATURAL COOKING LIQUOR, ROCK SALT, GHERKINS CALF’S HEAD SERVED WITH: BOILED BACON, PARSLEY SAUCE, BRAIN SAUCE, SAUCE VINAIGRETTE GRILLED STEAKS SERVED WITH: FRENCH/ENGLISH MUSTARD, BEURRE MAITRE D’HOTEL, POMMES PAILLE (STRAW POTATOES), WATERCRESS IRISH STEW SERVED WITH: WORCESTER SAUCE, PICKLED RED CABBAGE POULTRY CHICKEN SERVED WITH: BREAD SAUCE, ROAST GRAVY, PARSLEY & THYME STUFING, BACON ROLLS, GAME CHIPS, WATERCRESS ROAST TURKEY SERVED WITH: CRANBERRY SAUCE, BREAD SAUCE, CHESTNUT STUFFING, CHIPOLATA, GAME CHIPS, WATERCRESS, ROAST GRAVY GOOSE SERVED WITH: SAGE & ONION STUFFING, APPLE SAUCE, ROAST GRAVY WILD DUCK SERVED WITH: ORANGE SALAD, ACIDULATED CREAM DRESSING DUCK SERVED WITH: ONION & SAGE STUFFING, APPLE SAUCE, WATERCRESS, ROAST GRAVY GAME HARE SERVED WITH: HEART SHAPED CROUTES FORCEMEAT BALLS RED CURRANT JELLY VENISON SERVED WITH: CUCUMBERLAND SAUCE, REDCURRANT JELLY PARTRIDGE SERVED WITH : FRIED BREAD CRUMBS GROUSE SERVED WITH: HOT LIVER PASTE SPREAD ON A CROUTE PHEASANT SERVED WITH: BREAD SAUCE, GAME CHIPS, WATERCRESS, ROAST GRAVY
Hotel & Restaurant Trolleys
Restaurant Equipments Presentation Transcript FOOD & BEVERAGE SERVICES CLASSIFICATION OF RESTAURANT EQUIPMENTS FURNITURE TABLES CHAIRS SIDE BOARD BAR COUNTER FIXTURES PAINTINGS PELMETS CHANDELIERS LINEN 1 2 3 4 5 6 1. TABLE COVER 2. NAPPERON 3. CHAIR COVER 4. HOOD 5. BOW 6. NAPKINS CUTLERY & FLATWARE CUTLERY & FLATWARE CUTLERY & FLATWARE CUTLERY & FLATWARE CROCKERY CROCKERY HOLLOWARE CHAFFING DISHES TONGS SPECIAL EQUIPMENTS LOBSTER CRACKER LOBSTER PICK NUT CRACKER SNAIL TONGS SNAIL DISH ICE CREAM SCOOPS SKEWERS ASPARAGUS HOLDER CORN ON THE COB HOLDER GATEAU SLICE OYSTER FORK Champagne Chiller Ice Buckets with tong GLASSWARE Hi Ball Tom Collins Red Wine Glass White Wine Glass Water Goblet Shot Glass Cocktail / Martini Glass Beer Goblet Beer Mug Beer Tankard Pilsner Glass Brandy Goblet/Balloon/Snifter Champagne Saucer Champagne Tulip Champagne Flute Old Fashioned Roly Poly WINE GLASSES Machines & Other Equipments Ice Cube Making Machine Traulson Refrigerator Juicer Mixer Grinder 3 Sink Unit Dish Washer Plate Warmer/Hot Plate TROLLEYS Room Service Trolley Gueridon Trolley Cheese Trolley Dessert Trolley Carving Trolley Wine Trolley Liqueur Trolley Mobile Wine Bar
Ice cream Presentation Transcript ICE CREAMS Ice cream, or iced cream as it was originally called, was once narrowly defined as a luxury dessert made of cream, sugar, and sometimes fruit congealed over ice. But today it is an universally cherished favorite dish. The wide variety of ice creams and their varying cost ranging from low to high has made it delightful dish. Our affection with ice cream is centuries old. The ancient Greeks, Romans, and Jews were known to chill wines and juices. This practice evolved into fruit ices and, eventually, frozen milk and cream mixtures. The Italians were especially fond of the frozen confection that by the sixteenth century was being called ice cream. Ice cream is a frozen dessert made from dairy products, s u c h a s milk a n d cream, combined with flavorings a n d sweeteners, such as sugar. This mixture is stirred slowly while cooling to prevent large ice crystals from forming, which results in a smoothly textured ice cream. These ingredients, along with air incorporated during the stirring process (technically called overrun), make up ice cream. Although the term "ice cream" is sometimes used to mean frozen desserts and snacks in general, frozen custard, frozen yogurt, sorbet, gelato, and other similar products are sometimes informally called ice cream. Ice cream comes in a wide variety of flavors, often with additives such as chocolate flakes or chips, ribbons of sauce such as caramel or chocolate, nuts, fruit, and small candies / sweets. Some of the most popular ice cream flavors are vanilla, chocolate, strawberry, and Neapolitan (a combination of the three). Many people also enjoy ice cream sundaes, which often have ice cream, hot fudge, nuts, whipped cream, maraschino cherries or a variety of other toppings. Other toppings include cookie crumbs, butterscotch, sprinkles, banana sauce, marshmallows or different varieties of candy. Ice cream is generally served as a chilled product. It may also be found in dishes where the coldness of the ice cream is used as a temperature contrast, for example, as a topping on warm desserts, or even in fried ice cream. Some commercial institutions such as creameries specialize in serving ice cream and products that are related. ICE CREAM PRODUCTION Today’s ice creams are made by slowly churning a mixture of milk or cream, eggs, sugar, and flavorings (such as fruit, chocolate, or nuts) at freezing temperatures until the mixture transforms into a smoothly textured mass of tiny ice crystals. There are two basic varieties of ice cream: i) French-style or custard-based : These types of ice cream are very rich and smooth. They are made by incorporating egg yolks and sugar into cream and/or milk before churning. ii) Philadelphia-style : This ice cream contains no eggs and is made simply by mixing together milk or cream with sugar. This process yields a less rich ice cream that is firmer and chewier than French-style ice cream. TYPES OF ICE CREAMS Premium Ice cream generally has between 11% and 15% butterfat and 60% to 90% overrun , which is the air that is pumped into the ice cream. This creates a denser, heavier, creamier, richer and more caloric product than regular ice cream, and is reflected in the price. Super premium ice cream has even more butterfat— greater than 14%, with some having up to 18% and more—and less overrun, from as low as 20% up to 80%. Premium and super premium ice creams come in more complex flavors in addition to the basic ones. The super premium ice cream producers category includes smaller companies that make interesting gourmet” flavors. In addition to lower overrun and greater butterfat, the third way in which a super premium ice cream can be made richer is by using an egg custard base, which is known as French or French-style ice cream . Regular Ice cream is less dense: it contains 10% to 11% butterfat and more air, 90% to 100% overrun. It is usually sold in the more standard flavors, since the addition of ingredients of fancy flavors add to the cost escalation. Some people prefer the texture and lesser degree of richness, and prefer it in milkshakes where the subtlety of the richer ice cream can be lost (or is overkill). Economy Ice cream contains exactly 10% butterfat – the minimum USDA standard, and 95% to 100% overrun. It is made in basic flavors. Light Ice cream means that there is either 50% less fat or 33% fewer calories than the company’s standard ice cream. Read the labels carefully: the “light” ice creams of a superpremium brand often have more calories than the “regular” ice cream of other brands. Low fat Ice cream has 25% less fat than the company’s regular ice cream. Similar to the light ice cream analogy above, it can contain more calories than a regular ice cream of another brand. ASSORTMENT OF ICE CREAMS 1. Ice Cream Cake can take two forms. It is a three layer ice cream in the shape of a cake, often with cookie crumbs or other small representation of “cake”; or layers of ice cream and cake. In the latter, it is up to the cake maker to decide as to whether the middle layer is the ice cream or the cake. 2. Ice Milk is a low butterfat variation of ice cream, which due to advances in food technology over the last 20 years, has all but disappeared as a term, replaced by reduced fat ice cream. 3. Italian Ice is a smooth water ice, similar to a sorbet but generally a sweeter, snack product rather than a more refined dessert product. It is so-called because it is served in pizzerias and Italian ice shops, as well as by street vendors. Popular flavors include cherry, coconut, lemon and “rainbow ice.” 4. Kulfi is a dense Indian ice cream made with water buffalo’s milk and flavorings like cardamom, chikoo, coconut, malai (milk cream), almond, mango, pistachio and saffron. Kulfi is also never made with eggs, like French ice cream. It is prepared by simply boiling milk until it is reduced to half the original volume; then sugar and a teaspoon of corn syrup are added and the mixture is boiled for 10 more minutes. Water is mixed in until it thickens into a paste and is boiled a while longer. Finally, flavorings, dried fruits or cardamom are added. The mixture is cooled, put into molds and frozen. 5. Parfait , the French word for “perfect,” is originally the French sundae, generally served with fruit purée. In America, it became a particular type of sundae, with syrup and ice cream layered in a tall glass, topped with whipped cream. 6. Novelties are single-serving frozen treats such as ice cream bars, popsicles and sandwiches. 7. Semifreddo , means “half cold” in Italian, which refers to a class of semi-frozen desserts – semi-frozen custards, ice cream cakes and tarts. 8. Sherbet is a fruit-based product like sorbet, with milk added to provide creaminess. By law, sherbet can contain no more than 2% milkfat, and ranges from 1% to 2%. The milk makes it a slightly heavier product than sorbet. 9. Sorbet (the French word—in Italian, it’s sorbetto ) is a frozen dessert generally made from fruit purée or fruit juice; it can incorporate other flavorings including herbs and liqueurs. Unlike sherbet, sorbet contains no milk; some sorbet recipes also use egg whites. 10. Snow Cone , generally served in a paper cone or cup and is made of compacted shaved ice flavored with a choice of bright-colored sugary syrups, usually fruit-flavored (apple, banana, cantaloupe, cherry, colada, grape, kiwi, lemon, lime, mango, orange, peach, pineapple, raspberry, strawberry) but also spice (cinnamon) and pop flavors like bubblegum and cola. Snow cones served in a cup are eaten with a spoon; those in a paper cone are eaten like an ice cream cone. Interestingly, snow cones are the descendents of the original “ice cream,” which was snow flavored with fruit juice, created 4,000 years ago by the Chinese and learned through trade routes by the Persians 2,500 years ago. 11. Spumoni is a Neapolitan specialty where layers of three different colored and flavored ice creams: chocolate, pistachio and cherry are a popular combination. Or, more basic flavors can be used, with nuts and candied fruit added to the layers. 12. Sundae , a name invented in America consists of one or more scoops of ice cream topped with sauce or syrup (generally butterscotch, caramel, chocolate or strawberry). Chopped nuts and whipped cream is generally added, and a maraschino cherry is placed on top. There are endless creative riffs on the sundae, incorporating fruit, cookies, candy, cake, marshmallow creme, peanut butter sauce, sprinkles / jimmies, and ingredients too numerous to list. 13. Tartufo , the Italian word for truffle, is a ball of vanilla ice cream, often with a cherry and nuts in the center, enrobed in chocolate. The ice cream version appeared around the Victorian era, when the molding of ice cream into flowers, fruits, and other shapes became popular. 14. Gelato is Italian ice cream made from milk and sugar, combined with other flavorings. The gelato ingredients (after an optional pasteurization) are frozen while stirring to break up ice crystals as they form. Like high-end ice cream, gelato generally has less than 35% air, resulting in a dense and extremely flavourful product. Gelato is typically made with fresh fruit or other ingredients such as chocolate (pure chocolate, flakes, chips, etc.), nuts, small confections or cookies, or biscuits. 15. Ais kacang or ice kacang is a dessert served in Malaysia and Singapore. It is also popularly known as air batu campur in Malay or ABC for short. It is sweet-tasting and is primarily crushed or shaved ice served with sweet flavoured syrup and jelly. The word Kacang is a Malay word for bean, and the word "ais" is a transliteration of the English term "ice". Formerly, it was made of only shaved ice and cooked red beans. Several varieties have also been introduced which contain aloe vera in some form or another, such as in jelly form. Evaporated (condenced) milk is drizzled over the mountain of ice. 16. Ice pop is a frozen water dessert on a stick that is colored and flavored. It is made by freezing colored, flavored liquid (such as fruit juice) around a stick. Once solid, the stick is then used as a handle to hold the ice pop. 17. Frozen Custard or Soft-Serve Ice Cream is ice cream served at a warmer temperature from a machine that extrudes the ice cream into soft, swirled peaks. Frozen yogurt is also available in soft-serve form. With both ice cream and frozen custard, the ingredients are mixed at 21°F; then the ice cream goes into a hardening room where it becomes rock-solid at -40°F. Soft ice cream leaves off this last step. Frozen custard is perceived as tastier because it is warmer and doesn’t numb the taste buds. What we know today as “soft serve” or “frozen custard” was originally regular “French” ice cream or “ glace.” Over time, the hard ice cream became known as “ French” ice cream, and “frozen custard” became the term used for the soft-serve ice creams, which once did use a custard ice cream base. 18. Frozen Yogurt is made of low-fat or no-fat yogurt, sweetener, gelatin, corn syrup, coloring, and flavoring, churned in an ice cream machine. It can be found softserve or hard-packed. It both freezes and melts much more slowly than ice cream, since yogurt has a much higher freezing and melting point than milk. 19. Glace (pronounced GLAHS) is French-style ice cream, also called frozen custard, made from rich milk-andcream- based custard that includes eggs. Not to be confused with soft-serve ice cream called frozen custard, which may or may not have an egg-custard base. 20. Granita (pronounced grah-nee-TAH, or granité, grahnee- TAY, in French) is a semi-frozen dessert that is made with the same ingredients as sorbet—sugar, water and a flavoring, in this case a liquid such as fruit juice, coffee or wine. Unlike sorbet, granita is not churned in a freezing machine, but is poured into a large pan, placed in the freezer, and the frozen crystals are scraped from the top of the pan every 30 minutes or so. It thus yields large, frozen flakes, a crystalline appearance and a crunchy texture. Granita also has less sugar than sorbet or sherbet SERVING ICE CREAM 1. The ideal serving temperature for ice cream and other frozen desserts is 6–10°F, yet most home freezers are set to 0°F. When you serve frozen desserts straight from the freezer, they’re too cold to allow your taste buds to experience their full spectrum of flavors. 2. "Temper" ice cream before you scoop – leave it at room temperature for 8-10 minutes before serving. Return ice cream to the freezer immediately after it has been served to minimize the formation of ice crystals. 3. Serve ice cream in chilled bowls, preferably glass. Not only is the frosted bowl refreshing to look at, but the ice cream will retain its shape longer. 4. Scooping ice cream: Have a large Pyrex measuring cup or other heat proof container filled with just boiling water standing by. Dip the metal scoop into the hot water, let it heat up for a moment, and then DRY the scoop on a towel. Quickly drag the hot scoop across the ice cream creating tight rolls of the divine stuff. Do not smash the ice cream with the scoop. Repeat the process for each serving. 5. To store opened ice cream, first place a piece of plastic wrap on the surface and smooth it down lightly with your fingers. Then close the lid securely and return to the depths of your freezer. ICE CREAM SCOOPS · Solid scoops: These use a thin leading edge to help you push through firm ice cream. Many have handles filled with an anti-freezing fluid that keeps the scoop warmer than the ice cream. · Spring-loaded scoops: These have a strip of metal or plastic that sweeps across the inner surface of the scoop, helping to ease the ice cream out of the scoop. Some models have a button on the back that pushes the ice cream straight out of the scoop. · Spades: These are ideal if worked with ice cream on a flat surface and folding ingredients into it. A spade is useless if one needs to scoop ice cream out of small containers. STORING ICE CREAMS 1. Every time you remove ice cream from the freezer, some of its small ice crystals melt. When you return the container to the freezer, that melted liquid refreezes and clings to existing crystals, making the ice cream grainier and grainier each time you remove it. Though this problem is unavoidable, you can minimize it by dividing your freshly churned ice cream into a number of small containers so that each container spends as little time outside the freezer as possible. 2. Foods that contain fat—including ice cream, gelato, sherbet, and frozen yogurt—are prone to picking up odors from nearby foods in the freezer if they’re not sealed and stored properly. Protect your ice cream from unwanted odors by draping a layer of plastic wrap or wax paper over the top of your storage container before covering it with the lid.