Making of Wine
The various process involved in the process of making wine –
1. Harvesting
2. Grading
3. Weighing
4. Removal of stalks
5. Crushing
6. Sulphuring
7. Fermentation
8. Cellaring & second processing
9. Racking
10. Fining & Filtering
11. Refrigeration
12. Blending
13. Maturing of wine
14. Bottling of wines
15. Pasteurization
16. Ageing of wine

Factors Affecting wine quality

A number of factors effect wine quality, the most important being the type of grape used. The best grapevine is the vitis vinifera, which has many different varieties. The grape yield per acre is also a factor. The higher the yield is the lower the wine quality will generally be conversely, the lower the yield is the more concentrated the grape flavours and the better the wine quality will be normally, a ton of gushed grapes yield an average of 170 gallon of Table wine.

Soil is also a factor the best being one that offers good drainage, which is why gravel and sand are better than clay. Good drainage forces the wines root to seek deep moisture which cause their root to become longer. These longer roots are able to reach deep mineral deposits and these mineral, in turn, add flavour to gapes and this to wine.

Another factor is climate Grape vines like Cool nights and Sunny, warm days, as these help them maintain the right balance between acid and sugar in the grapes. However, too hot weather when the grapes are maturing, near harvest times, will decrease the acid and increase the sugar and will produce a wine that may not age well. On the other hand too little sunshine will reduces the amount of grape sugar and produce a wine low in alcohol and as a result, sugar may have to be added before fermentation to raise that alcohol level. Also rain at harvest time can diluted the grapes sugar and encourages rolling thereby lowering the quality of the wine. Mechanical grapes-picking equipment can give grapes growers more control over the grapes quality than hand picking can as all the grape can be picked quickly when they all at their peak of ripeness. But if rain has spoiled some of the grape bunches, hand picking will allow those to be by passed.

Finally, the skills of the winemaker are extremely important as it can affect the personality and quality of the wine produced. The vintner’s skill can also very, because of local tradition and will dictate the type of wine made. The market for whom the wine is to be manufactured also calls upon different wine making skills. For example, if the wine to be made in a smaller quantity with a high quality or in a larger quantity with a lesser quality for a broader market.

Vitis Vinifera
The best wines are made from a type of vine as known Vitis Vinifera. Some of which are known to be three hundred years only. This wine grows best in his broad belts one north and the other south of the equator. Grapes can be grown outside these belts and be turned into wine, but its quality is not considered as high as that from vines grown within these belts. The northern belt includes as knowledge wine making countries such as France, Italy, Germany and the United States. The Southern belt embraces Chile, Argentina, Australia and South Africa vines will yield more grapes when planted in fertile soil on flat land but the wine made from such grapes will seldom be comparable in quality to wine made from grapes grown on sunny slopes in soil that may not be fertile but is rich in the mineral that create a special, characteristic, known as bouquet, that is present in all quality wines.
As the grapes mature, their sugar content increases and their acid content decreased. Grape growers thus must know when the balance between sugar and acid is just right to produce the best wine.

Types of wine
There are three basic types of wine: still, sparkling and fortified. All three will be given below in detail –

Still wine or table wine
Most wine is still wine which is known as dinner or table wine. It can be provided in various shades of red, rose and white and has an alcohol content generally ranging from 9 to 14 percent by volume.
a. Red wine is often more full than rose or white and is often heartier, taster and dries. Red wine is best served at room temperature and some red wine can be served chilled which are young red wine.
b. Rose wine may be slightly sweet & often has a fruity flavour. Rose wines are best served chilled. Rose wine colour is mainly from pals pink to red.
c. White wine vary from a pale strain colour to a deep gold. Whites are lighter bodied and more delicate than red wine and has less pronounced flavour. White wines are served chilled.
Much still wine is referred to by the French Le Vin ordinoire which means as inexpensive wine of agreeable quality produced in great quality for every any consumption by the inhabitants of France and other. European countries very little of this wine is exported to North America.

Sparkling Wine
Sparkling wine contains carbon dioxide bubbles which provide their effervescence. The carbon dioxide is produced either through a natural process of fermentation that does not allow the carbondioxide to escape during the conversion of the grape sugar into alcohol and carbon dioxide or it is added to still wine after the fermentation is complete.
Red rose and white wines all can be made into sparkling wines. Whatever the colour sparkling wine is best served chilled like still wines, spackling wines range from 9 to 14 percent alcohol by volume.
The best known naturally produced sparkling wine is champagne. Although only the sparkling wine produced in the champagne region of France is true champagne (with a capital C) the champagne method can be applied to any wine to make it sparkling. In Germany, sparkling wine is given the name “Schaumwein” and in Italy it is ‘Spumante’.

Fortified wines
Fortified wines are still wines to which has been added a distilled grape spent such as brandy. This fortification considerably increases the wines alcohol content which ranges from 15% to as high as 24 percent by volume. Fortified wines vary from very dry to very sweet and are usually served before or at the conclusion of a meal. The best known fortified wines are poet, sherry, vermouth, Madeira and Macola.

Sweetness in sparkling wine
Extra trut : Very dry (upto 6 g)
Brut : Very dry (less than 15 g)
Extra Sec : Dry (12 to 20 g)
Sec : Slightly sweet (17 to 35 g)
Demi Sec : Sweetish (35 to 50 g)

Factor affecting quality of wine
1. Soil of the area
2. Weather condition present in the region during the year
3. The types of grapes used and if different variety are used, the proportion on which they are mixed
4. Artificial or natural ingredient added if any.
5. Period of maturity
6. The number of growths during the year

Storage of wines
Temperature: A steady moderate temperature is essential for maintaining the quality of a wine. It can vary from 0°C to 24°C. However these changes in the temperature must be gradual. This is the reason why cellar are preferred for storage of wine. White wines are more sensitive to temperature variation than red wines.

Light: Exposure to light encourages oxidation and hence accelerates aging. Therefore wine must never be exposed to sunlight.

Stability: Violent and frequent motion also accelerates the process of aging in a wine. Hence wine must be stored such that it is not subjected to movement Bed wine in the process of manufacture must not be distributed as the sediment to blend in the wine and thus get a perfectly good wine.

Position: A wine must always be stored in a lifted or lying down position. The entry affair through a day cock increase oxidation and hence a cock must be maintained moist. A dry cock crumbs when being opened thus spoiling the taste and appearance of the wine. This is the reason why wines are always stored lying down.

Glass required for wine service

1. White wine or hock capacity : 5½ oz
2. A.P. wine or red wine : 7 oz
3. Champagne saucer : 6 oz
4. Champagne tulip : 9 oz
5. Sherry : 3 oz

Equipment required for service of wine

1. Wine basket or wine stand with ice
2. Wine opener
3. Waiters cloth
4. Quarter plate
5. Proper glassware

Service of Wine
Presentation of Bottle –
Draw the wine from the cellar and take it to the table properly wrapped in a waiter cloth. Present the wine bottle to the host from the right with the bottle resting on the forearm while announcing the name of wine and clearly stating the year of manufacture this is to make clear and sure that the host being given the bottle has ordered for this is also the good chance for him to check that the wine is being served at the right temperature.

Opening the bottle –
Cut the foil well below the tip of the bottle and tear it off wipe the mouth to remove any mould that may have formed near the cock. Insert the corkscrew into the cork not more than 3/4th of the way into the cock to avoid contact with the wine. Draw the cock out gently & present it to the host for approval on a plate the inspection of the cock gives the host as ideal of the aroma to expect from the wine. It also tells the host that the bottle has been stored in the proper manner and that the cock has not crumbled on being drawn.
3. Pouring – Pour wine into the host’s glass and wait for him or her to taste it and approve. Once the host approves the wine pour it to the guest, starting from the host left hand and pureed in a clockwise direction. Make sure you serve the ladies first. The host must or served last.
4. Put the bottle back in the basket or wine basket with an appropriate wrapped napkin. If the bottle is empty it must be placed neck back down in the wine stand after showing to the host.
5. A few general rules to note while pouring wine –
· Never from wine from a height
· Never touch the rim of the glass
· Pour it quality gently avoiding bubbling
· Pour only 2/3rd of the glass or up to the logo
· While pouring champagne always remembers that champagne is always “poured twice” which means you pour a little. Wait for the froth to dry down and then pour again to fill the glass.
· After pouring twist the bottle slightly to avoid the last drops dripping down the side.
· When pouring the wine pour steadily on the slope of the glass on the opposite side ensure the flow is smooth.
· When changing the wine or when serving a fresh bottle always serve in fresh glasses.
· Before discarding an empty bottle show it to the host to avoid confusion later on.

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