Wine




Introduction
The vine grows most successfully between the latitude 30-50° north and 30-50° south of the equator. Some of the greatest wine, like champagne come from the extremities of these wine belts where because of the extreme cold or extreme heat, the wine has a permanent struggle to service. The vine usually produces good quality grapes when it is five year old and will continue to yield healthy grapes up to the age of 35 years.

History
Wine is probably the earlier of the alcoholic beverages, simple because it could be made without the maker has to understand the chemical change that turned the sugar in grapes, other fruits and other product into alcohol. Some of these earlier, wines were made from Honey and were known as mead. Indeed wine may have been brewed in Mesopotamia. It have been made as long as ten thousand years ago.

Wine is mentioned in documents three thousand year old as well as in the Bible and in the literature of the Greeks and Roman Bees has been Kurun as long as wine. Wine making goes as for back into history as the act of cooking food goes. Ever since the time man started enjoying his food, he has known the art of making wine to go with it. The metamorphosis wine underwent from the stages where the juice of fruit simply left for a long time and allowed to ferment to the refined wine as we know it, today it took a very long time. The efforts put in by the various vineyard and the wine makers in perfecting the act of making good wine and in keeping the formula and the process a secret have contributed to giving as the wine as we know it today. In countries like France, the formula and the process, individually to every grower is a very jealously guarded secret that is passed down the generation only through members of the family.

The top ten wine producing countries are :
1. Italy
2. France
3. Spain
4. U.S.A.
5. C.I.S.
6. Argentina
7. Germany
8. Portugal
9. South Africa
10. Romania

The top ten wine consuming countries are :
France 67.5 lit per capital
Portugal 66.5 lit per capital
Italy 62.0 lit per capital
Luxemburg 60.3 lit per capital
Argentina 45.8 lit per capital
Spain 45.8 lit per capital
Switzerland 45.5 lit per capital
Chile 41.0 lit per capital
Austria 39.2 lit per capital
Greece 31.8 lit per capital

As a contrast, the United Kingdom consumes 12.5 lit per capital. Although Britain is traditionally regarded as a nation of beer drinks the consumption of wine has now dramatically increased. One of the effects of the secret recessions is that more and more people are having their diner at home rather than going out for a meal. For massy that means having a couple of glasses of wine when they eat. It is now estimated that home consumption of wine makes up 75% of the market. A greater interest in television and the obvious deterrent of the drink driving laws have also influenced this trend. You can now get the quality wine at a reasonable price in super market and other outlet. Wine has become socially acceptable and is perceived to be more clearly healthy than other alcohol drinks.




Principle Grape varieties used in wine :

Chardonnay
Cabernet Sauvignon
Chenin Blanc
Gamay
Gewurtztraminer
Merlot
Grenache
Malbec
Nebbiolo
Muscadet
Pinot-Noir
Pinot Blanc
Syrah
Riesling
Zinfandel
Sauvignon Blanc
Semillon
Tempranillo

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