Grape Varieties

Agiorgitiko (Red)
(St George) Red-wine grape native to Greece. Used to produce intense, fruity wine in dry and sweet versions. Also blended with Cabernet Sauvignon to create a wine capable of aging well.

Aglianico (Red)
Underrated, lots of weighty, berry flavours. The grape is also used to make good bronze-coloured rosé-style wine. Italy

Albariño (White)
(Alvarinho) Used to create a serious varietal wine with pleasant citrus fruit aroma. Fashionable and expensive in Spain. Portugal, Spain

Aligoté (White)
Burgundy’s second-rank white grape. Used to make a superior white wine, with little or no aging ability and best drunk young, for blending or as a good dry wine in the better vintage. France, E Europe, N America

Arinto (White)
Naturally high acidity, therefore always lemony-fresh and tangy. Used in the production of Portugal’s ‘vinho-verde’ wines. Portugal

Arneis (White)
Aromatic, high-priced grape, lacking sufficient acidity to age well. Italy, Australia

Baga (Red)
(Tinta Bairrada) Produces acidic, fruit-packed, tannic wines capable of aging well. Portugal

Barbera (Red)
Usually produces an intense red wine with deep colour, low tannins and high acid. At its best in Piedmont, used in California to provide ‘backbone’ for so-called ‘jug’ wines. Italy, California, Australia, Argentina

Bical (White)
Grown in the Beiras district of Portugal, a crisp, mildly aromatic varietal but most often is used in sparkling wine blends. Portugal

Blaufränkisch (Red)
Mainly grown in Austria to produce dry, fruity red wines, at best a considerable red. Austria, Germany, Hungary

Bonarda (Red)
Cherry-jam flavours, easy drinking. Argentina, Italy

Bourboulenc (White)
Makes some of the Midi’s (S Rhône) best wines, creates acidic balance in blends. France

Brachetto (Red)
Used to make spritzy, light red dessert wines with fruity, strawberry aroma. Best when young and served chilled. Italy

Brunello (Red)
See Sangiovese

Bual (White)
Makes top-quality sweet Madeira wines. Portugal

Cabernet Franc (Red)
(Bouchet) Wine from these grapes has a deep purple color, when young, with a herbaceous aroma. Traditionally used in Bordeaux-style blends, but increasingly bottled as a varietal. France, S Africa, Australia, USA

Cabernet Sauvignon (Red)
Main constituent of a Bordeaux blend. Can provide super-premium wines – rich, full and complex and capable of long ageing. Flavours of blackcurrant, cherry, chocolate, black pepper. Australia, France, Italy, NZ, S Africa, Argentina, Chile, USA

Cannonau (Red)
See Grenache

Carignan (Red)
Dull but harmless red wines. Used in California’s blends and ‘jug’ wines. Some old plantings allow small lots of premium extract wine to be made. France, Spain, California, N Africa

Carmènere (Red)
Similar to Merlot, but spicier and more savoury. Chile

Chardonnay (White)
Burgundy and Champagne grape. Fruity character; barrel-influenced flavours of oak/vanilla; creamy, buttery components from malolactic fermentation. Hugely successful in many regions due to its mid-season ripening and versatility. Mostly bottled in S Africa as varietal. France, Australia, S Africa, NZ, USA, Spain, Italy

Chasselas (White)
(Fendant/Gutedel) Little aroma, mainly grown for eating. NZ use it for popular sweet wines. Switzerland, Germany, France, NZ

Chenin Blanc (White)
(Steen) Makes crisp, fresh dry wines and rich, honeyed sweet wines. In warm regions notes of melon, fig, pear and guava. S Africa, France, Argentina, Spain

Cinsaut (Red)
(Cinsault) Used as blend component in many red or rosé wines. Crossed with Pinot to make Pinotage. Pale wine but quality potential. France, Italy, South Africa, Australia

Clairette (White)
A low-acid grape, part of many S France blends. Used with Muscat grape to create dry/off-dry sparkling. Best known product: “Clairette de Die”, comes from the E Rhone region of France. France, Australia

Colombar (White)
(Colombard) Widely grown in S Africa. Fruity, high acidity, interesting in both dry and sweet versions. Used for Californian jug wine; certain Bordeaux and Gascony AOC’s and for distilling into brandy. S Africa, California, France, N America

Dolcetto (Red)
Usually made into fast maturing, fruity and robust dark red wine with faintly bitter flavour, everyday wines that have become fashionable. Italy

Dornfelder (Red)
Usually succulent, fruity, early-drinking reds although it is increasingly available as a bottled varietal with aging potential. Germany

Favorita (White)
(Favorito) Plantings are increasing. Top wines are citrussy and mountain fresh, mainly used in white blends. Italy

Fernão Pires (White)
Used to make aromatic and somewhat spicy-tasting dry, sweet and sparkling wines. Portugal

Fiano (White)
Makes balanced, elegant white wine with attractive nut-like hints in the aroma. Very sturdy and long-lived, it makes peachy, spicy wine in Campania. Italy

Folle Blanche (White)
High acid/little flavour makes this ideal for brandy. W Loire use to produce an often light, sharply acidic wine called “Gros Plant du Pays Nantais”. France, California

Furmint (White)
Widely grown in Hungary and used to make the ultra-sweet “Tokay” wines. Hungary, Austria, Slovenia

Gaglioppo (Red)
Excellent, robust wines, best un-oaked. Italy

Gamay (Red)
Predominant grape of Beaujolais. Light-bodied, juicy upfront flavours of red cherries, bananas, plums and bubble gum. Made for early drinking. France

Garganega (White)
Gives Italy’s Soave blend its personality. Is also a major portion of the popular “Gambellara” blend; top wines, especially sweet ones age well. Italy

Gewürztraminer (White)
Pungent, rich and soft wines, spicy aromas and flavours of lychees, nuts, ginger, roses, melon. Usually dry wines but made in sweeter styles in S Africa. France, Germany, Australia, Italy, NZ, Spain (minimal plantings in S Africa)

Grecanico Dorato (White)
Becoming more popular. Grassy and pungent; similar to Sauvignon Blanc. Italy

Grechetto/Greco (White)
Ancient grape of Italy, noted for the vitality and stylishness of its wines. Italy

Grenache (Red)
(Alicante/Cannonau) Often used in Rhone-style blends but good on its own. Produces strong, fruity but pale wines with black and red fruits, smoke, nuts, chocolate, leather, mud and coffee. Australia, France, Spain, Italy, California

Grignolino (Red)
Commonly grown in the Piedmont region. Makes good table wines – light red colour wine with very fruity aroma and strong acid/tannins. Italy

Grüner Veltliner (White)
Predominant grape in Austria. Light, dry and peppery, excellent young but has very good aging potential (up to 15 years) when made from the finest vintage year grapes. Austria

Hárslevelü (White)
Adds softness and body to Tokay blend. Hungary

Kadarka (Red)
(Gamza in Bulgaria) Used to make ‘Egri Bikaver’, Hungary’s best-known dry red wine blend. Hungary, Bulgaria

Kékfrankos (Red)
See Blaufränkisch

Kéknyelü (White)
Flavourful grape, one of Hungary’s best whites, has potential for fieriness and spice. Hungary

Kerner (White)
(Schiava Grossa) Used to produce a Riesling-like white wine. Early-ripening flowery (but often too blatant) wine with good acidity. Italy

Lagrein (Red)
Used to make varietal and rosé wines of good character – full-bodied and velvety, reds have sour black cherries, unripe plums and dark chocolate. Italy

Lambrusco (Red)
Produces a number of wine styles – dry or off-dry wines or cheerful sweet and fizzy red. Italy

Lemberger (Red)
See Blaufränkisch

Macabeo (White)
Workhorse white grape of N Spain, widespread in Rioja, produces mildly acidic and young white wines for early consumption or blends. Spain, France

Malbec (Red)
(Cot) Dark, dense and tannic, if it’s made well has wonderful gamey, spicy, black fruit character. Badly made examples are very rustic. Commonly used in Bordeaux blends. France, California, Argentina, Australia, Chile, NZ

Malvasia (White)
Used to produce dry and sweet white, and light red wines with high alcohol content and residual sugar. Is one of two white wine grapes allowed in Chianti Classico production. Italy

Marsanne (White)
Principal grape in N Rhône blends. Full-bodied and soft wines that age well. Australia, France, USA

Mencía (Red)
Light red wine variety widely grown in N W Spain. Early-drinking, usually high in acidity. Tastes of raspberries. Spain

Merlot (Red)
Often used in blends with Cabernet Sauvignon and Bordeaux blends. Varietal – blackcurrants, chocolate, black cherries and pepper, the finest have astonishing finesse, structure and depth. Canada, Chile, France, Italy, NZ, S Africa, USA, Argentina, Australia, Spain

Montepulciano (Red)
(D’Abruzzo) Usually made into a blend with Sangiovese in order to produce a fruity, round, yet balanced red wine with attractive aroma that reportedly can improve with up to 6 years aging. Also used to produce a popular rosé named ‘Cerasuolo’. Italy

Morellino (Red)
See Sangiovese


Moschofilero (White)
Widely grown in the Peloponnese region of S Greece, usually vinified to give a light, aromatic, dry white or pink varietal wine. Greece

Mourvèdre (Red)
(Mataro) Pungent, rustic and aromatic, bursting with ripe black fruits. Mainly used to introduce color and body to red wine blends. France, Spain, Australia, California

Müller-Thurgau (White)
Produces a flowery, yet acidic white wine which, if yields are kept low, gives inviting floral, nutmeg aromas and flavours. However most are dreary owing to over-cropping. Germany

Muscadelle (White)
(Muscadel) Grown in the Gaellac region of France, used in local white sweet wine blend. In Victoria, Australia it’s called Tokay and used for Rutherglen Muscat. France, Australia, S Africa

Muscadet (White)
(Melon de Bourgogne) Dry, tart wines, light and fresh with distinctive fruit in good vintage. Early drinking. France, California

Muscat (White)
Has various synonyms (Muscat Blanc à Petits Grains, Muscat de Frontignan etc). Excellent for dessert and fortified wines, can be used to touch up blends. Australia, Italy, Portugal, S Africa, Spain

Nebbiolo (Red)
(Spanna/Chiavennasca) One of Italy’s best red grapes making deep, complex, tannic wines. Can have a long life and need a few years to soften before ready to drink. Italy, Australia, Chile

Negroamaro (Red)
Used to produce the base wine of the “Salice di Salento” and other S Italian red wine blends of good repute and aging potential. Means ‘black bitter’, intense flavours of dark chocolate, black cherry and prunes, slightly bitter aftertaste. Italy

Nero d’Avola (Red)
A very big wine, becoming very trendy. Used as one of the wines blended into a well-regarded Sicilian red wine with complex aromas capable of aging well. Italy

Palomino (White)
(Listán) Makes all the best sherry but poor table wine as wine-must has a tendency to oxidise quickly. Spain, S Africa, California, Australia

Pedro Ximénez (White)
(PX) Widely grown in Spain, used in blending sweet Sherries. Also found in Australia where it is used, along with Palomino, to produce fortified wines. Spain, Australia, Argentina, the Canaries, California, S Africa


Periquita (Red)
Produces popular, firm-flavoured reds. Portugal

Petit Verdot (Red)
Mainly grown in Bordeaux (sometimes included in Bordeaux blends), but attracting attention for its gorgeous violet scent. France, Australia

Petite/Gros Manseng (White)
Used for producing both dry and sweet white wines. France

Pinot Blanc (White)
Usually makes easy-drinking, fruity, not aromatic dry wines. Similar to, but milder than Chardonnay. Used in many of the better champagne style sparkling wines of California because of its acid content and clean flavour. France, Germany, Italy, California

Pinot Gris (White)
(Pinot Grigio/Ruländer) Can be light, crisp and spicy, or intense and pungent with a ripe peach character and a whiff of smoke. Oaked or not, sweet or dry. Canada, France, Germany, USA, Argentina, Australia, Italy, NZ

Pinot Noir (Red)
(Pinot Nero) The premier grape of Burgundy. Difficult to cultivate but creates very elegant wines with finesse. Light in colour, strawberry, raspberry, plum and cherry flavours in youth that mellow to a gamey style with maturity. Canada, Chile, France, Germany, NZ, USA, Australia, Italy, S Africa, Spain

Pinot Noir (White)
(See Red Grapes) White: Used in Champagne and elsewhere for making white, sparkling, or very pale pink “vin gris”. France

Pinotage (Red)
Developed in South Africa, this is a cross between Pinot Noir and Cinsaut (Hermitage). Smooth flavours of bananas and redcurrants in youth, more earthy as it matures and Pinot Noir character emerges. If not well made it can be slightly bitter and jammy. S Africa, NZ

Primitivo (Red)
Minor variety mainly confined to Apulia in southern Italy where it is used to produce a heavy, robust port like red wine made from raisined grapes. Italy

Refosco (Red)
Made into what is often considered to be a robust, very intense red wine with moderate complexity that can match the heartiest meal course. Italy

Riesling (White)
Sweet styles are most common and when young are floral-scented, peachy and appley. But becoming very popular through drier wine style, exhibiting good aging potential. Germany, Australia, France, NZ, S Africa, Canada, Spain, USA

Roussanne (White)
(Bergeron) Rhône grape, incorporated into white wine blends because of its acidity and aroma. France, California, Australia

Sagrantino (Red)
Found in Umbria, Italy it produces big, bold wines full of cherries and wood smoke. Italy

Sangiovese (Red)
(Brunello/Morellino) Produced in Tuscany, Italy. Used to produce Chianti and other Tuscan red wines. Scents of violets, flavours of soft red fruits, plums, earth, tobacco, leather and herbs with a bitter twist and the end. Can be light-bodied and early drinking or powerful and age worthy. Italy, Argentina, Australia, Chile, USA

Saperavi (Red)
Acidic, capable of high sugar content makes a good, sharp very long-lived wine. In cool climates it’s mostly used as a blending wine. Georgia, Ukraine

Sauvignon Blanc (White)
Grassiness and gooseberries in temperate regions. In warmer regions, the flavours and aromas tend to be more citrus like. Often green pepper and cat’s pee (lovely!). Pungency varies from country to country. NZ, S Africa, Chile, France, Spain, Australia, Italy

Scheurebe (White)
Spicy-flavoured, possible cross of Riesling and Silvaner. Full bodied, citrus and tropical fruit. Can be dry or sweet. Austria, Germany

Sémillon (White)
Distinctive fig-like character. Young – lean, grassy, citrus notes, fig, pear, melon. Aged – lanolin, rich honeyed. Grapes are susceptible to botrytis so it also is used for some of the world’s finest dessert wines. Australia, France, S Africa, USA

Sercial (White)
Makes the driest Madeira. Portugal

Seyval Blanc (White)
Attractively fruity, popular in Eastern States and England, banned by EU from “quality” wines.

Silvaner/Sylvaner (White)
Easy wine with lightly spicy, floral flavours and mild intensity. Once very popular in California, it seems to have fallen victim to changing fashion in recent years and been replaced by (Johannisberg) Riesling. Germany

Spätburgunder (Red)
See Pinot Noir

Steen (White)
See Chenin Blanc

St-Laurent (Red)
Used in Austria to produce a rich-looking red wine with pronounced fruity, flowery aromas. Austria, Canada

Syrah/Shiraz (Red)
The great Rhône red grape: tannic, purple, peppery wine which matures superbly. Heady aromas of spice, violets, leather, herbs and chewy flavours of wild berries, ripe plums, liquorice, black pepper and chocolate. Australia, France, S Africa, USA, Argentina, Chile, Italy, NZ, Spain

Tannat (Red)
(Harriaque) Deeply coloured and tannic grown in the Pyrenees region of France. Blended to make the full-bodied red wine known as ‘Madiran’. Also widely grown in Uruguay, S America, where is used to produce a popular varietal wine. France, S America

Tempranillo (Red)
Fine wine grape used in best quality red wines of Rioja, Spain. Can be light or full-bodied. Becoming very fashionable, elegant in cool climates, beefy in warm. Spain, Argentina, Portugal

Tocai Friulano (White)
Widely grown in the Fruili region of Italy. Used to produce light bodied white wines with flowery and nut-like flavours, should be drunk when young. Italy

Torrontés (White)
Fragrant grape widely grown in Argentina, mainly used in the production of S American fortified Brandy and as a dry table wine with good acid content. S America

Touriga Nacional (Red)
Regarded as the premier grape for use in fortified Port wines. Great for blending, complex aromas and flavours. Portugal, California, S America, S Africa

Trebbiano (White)
(Ugni Blanc) Widely grown in Italy and S France, produces a fruity, acidic white wine, best drunk when young and chilled. Used to bolster blends. Italy, France

Trincadeira (Red)
Grown in the Alentejo region of Portugal and used to make a somewhat spicy varietal wine. Portugal

Verdejo (White)
Extensive plantings in Rueda, Spain. Can make good wines capable of aging well. Spain

Verdelho (White)
Madeira grape making excellent medium-sweet wine, and rich dry wine. Australia, Portugal, Spain

Verdicchio (White)
(Verdeca) Grown in the Italian provinces of Apulia, for use in a local dry, fruity blend. Italy

Vermentino (White)
Early drinking, full-bodied, dry white wines that go well with seafood. France, Italy

Viognier (White)
Graceful and elegant, usually apricots, peach and almonds. Can vary from Riesling-like to almost Chardonnay character, depending on production method. Not noted for aging ability and is best drunk while young. France, S Africa, Argentina, Australia, Chile, USA

Zinfandel (Red)


Noted for the fruit-laden, berry-like aroma and prickly taste characteristics in its red version and pleasant strawberry reminders when made into a ‘blush’ wine. Italy, USA, Australia, Chile, S Africa

LIQUOR GLOSSARY

ABRICOTINE An apricot liqueur made in France
ABSINTHE Absinthe reached its peak of popularity and notoriety around the end of the nineteenth century and is now illegal not only in the United States but in Switzerland, the place of its origin. Absinthe is actually a green-hued cordial with aniseed (licorice) flavor. The ingredient that caused all the fuss was wormwood (actually deleterious only when taken in immense doses). Pernod, Abisinte, Abson, Anisette, Ojen, and Oxygene are its modern, safe, respectable substitutes.
ABSOLUT A high quality vodka of swedish manufacture, most commonly and appropriately taken unmixed. Now available flavored with lemon, blackberry, and peppers.
ADVOKAAT A bottled egg nog mixture made with brandy and eggs that originated in the netherlands.
AMARETTO An after-dinner liqueur with an almond flavor that is made in Italy from apricot kernels. The original amaretto, Amaretto di Saronne, was first made in Saronne, Italy, in 1525.
AMER PICON A bitter French cordial, bitter, orange-flavored, made from quinine, spices, cinchona bark, oranges, and gentiam
ANGOSTURA BITTERS (see bitters) made from a trinidadian secret recipe.
ANISETTE A sweet, clear, aniseed-flavored liqueur, the principle ingredient being aniseed.
APERTIF An alcoholic drink taken before a meal or any of several wines or bitters.
APPLEJACK An apple brandy produced principally in the United States and France. A version produced in Normandy, Calvados, is of very high quality. Also known as “Jersey lighting” and “hard cider”. Made from winter apples, a great deal of applejack produced in the Unites States is of the homemade variety, and thus of widely varying quality.
AQUAVIT (Akvavit) Scandanavian Vodka flavored with caraway, dill and other herbs and spices.
B&B A mixture of cognac and benidictine, yeilding a drier product than benidictine alone.
BACARDI The single best selling brand of rum or any other liquor in the United States. A light bodied rum, Bacardi was formerly made in Cuba and is now Manufactured in the Puerto Rico and several other places. The original Bacardi plant in 1862 was a tin roof shed housing a cast iron still, a few fermenting tanks, a few aging barrels and a colony of fruit bats nesting in the rafters, hence the bat logo on every label.
BAHAI A coffee flavored Brazilian liqueur.
BAILEYS IRISH CREAM A mocha flavored whiskey and double-cream liqueur, a combination of Irish whiskey, cream, coffee, chocolate, and coconut.
BENEDICTINE The oldest and perhaps most famous liqueur in the world, Benedictine dates from 1510. Its formula, which calls for twenty seven different herbs, plants, and peels, is a secret that has never been successfully been duplicated. Originally produced by Benedictine monks in an abbey in the Caux district of Normandy, Benedictine takes three years to make, followed by four years of aging.
BITTERS A highly concentrated flavoring agent made from roots, barks, herbs, and/or berries. Bitters are reputed to have medicinal qualities. Some, such as Compari and Fernet-Branca from Italy are believed to be such good stomach settlers and may even be useful in treating hangovers. Bitters such as Angostura are also effective in minute quantities as smoothing out the taste of a particularly harsh or bitter whiskey. Abbot’s bitters have been made in baltimore since 1865, Peychoud bitters come from New Orleans and Orange Bitters are made in England from the dried peels of seville oranges.
BLENDED WHISKEY Blended whiskey came into prominence in the United States during world war II, when distillers made the most of their dwindling stocks of whiskey by mixing them with unaged grain-neutral spirits. By U.S. law, blended whiskey must contain at least 20% straight whiskey. The rest may be unaged grain neutral spirits, pure alcohol with little or no flavor-and that’s exactly what the cheaper, inferior blends tend to be. Actually, there are two types of blended whiskey: the aforementioned cheaper brands in which straight whiskey is blended with grain neutral spirits, and those in which straight whiskeys of varying character and qualities are blended together to produce a distinctive product. Most Scotch, Bourbon, Canadian, rye, and Irish whiskeys currently on the market, including the very best available, are blended whiskeys and fall into this second category.
BOROUVICKA A Czechoslovakian juniper brandy similar to gin.
BOURBON An American whiskey distilled from a fermented mash of grain that is at least 51% corn. Bourbon is aged for at least two years in new charred oak barrels. Bourbon, a true American whiskey, originated in Bourbon County, Kentucky, and even today, most bourbon distilleries in the United States are located in kentucky. Jack Daniels is a high quality Bourbon that is filtered through maple charcoal befor aging.
BRANDY Brandy is distilled from a fermented mash of grapes or other fruit and the aged in white oak casks at least two years and usually bottled at 80 proof. Cognac is an exceptionally smooth brandy with a heady dry aroma produced in the Cognac region of France. Armagnac is similiar to Cognac, but with a drier taste, it is produced in the Armagnac region of France. American Brandy is distilled in California and is unique in that it is produced by the firms that grow the grapes, distill, age, blend, bottle and market the brandies under their own name. American brandy accounts for 75% of brandies sold in the U.S. Apple Brandy (applejack) is distilled from apple cider. Fruit brandies are brandy based liqueurs made from blackberries, apricots, cherries, and ginger and are bottled at 70 to 80 proof.
BUCKS Drink made with an ounce or so of liquor and lemon juice plus ginger ale, and topped with a twist of lemon.
CALVADOS One of the world’s great brands of apple brandy. Produced in Normandy.
CAMPARI A highly popular Italian patent apertif. Usually served on the rocks with soda, Campari is very dry with a strong quinine taste.
CANADIAN CLUB A high quality, highly popular brand of Canadian whiskey.
CANADIAN WHISKEY Like American whiskeys, Canadian whiskey is made primarily from corn, rye, and malted barley, and is distilled by a process similar to that used in making bourbon, except that a sweet mash is used. Lighter bodied, smoother, and less assertive than its American counterpart, Canadian whiskey is excellent for mixing or for summer use.
CHAMBRAISE A French liqueur made from wild strawberries
CHAMBORD A french liqueur made from small black raspberries
CHARTREUSE A famous herbal French liqueur still produced by the Carthusian monks in France from a formula dating back to 1605 and containing 130 herbs and spices. This exquisite liqueur is available in two colors: yellow and green.
CHASER A mixer that is tossed down the throat after one has drunk a straight shot of whiskey or other spirit instead of being combined with a spirit in the glass. The origonal chaser was a boiler-maker, which was a shot and a beer.
CHERI-SUISSE A Swiss liqueur that tastes like chocolate covered cherries.
CHERRY MARNIER A French cherry liqueur with a hint of almond
COBBLER A tall summer style drink that consists of ice, wine or liqueur, and a considerable variety of fruit slices, cherries, berries, and so forth.
COGNAC A type of brandy that is produced only in the Cognac region of western France and is universally recognized as the finest and most elegant liqueur in the world. Not a drop of any other wine or brandy is ever allowed to enter a bottle of Cognac. The Cognac region is divided into six districts, with the Cognac of Grand Champagne considered the best. Cognac is coded on the label by the following letters: V (very), S (superior), O (old), P (pale), E (extra or especial), F (fine), X (extra). French law states that Cognac with 3 stars be aged at least 1½ years old to be rated VS & 4 years to be rated VSOP (althought 7-10 years is pretty common). By french law the words Extra, Napolean, Reserve and Vieille may not appear on the label unless the cognac has been aged at least 5½ years.
COINTREAU A fine, colorless, orange-flavored liqueur made from the dried skins of Curaçao oranges grown on the island of the same name in the Dutch West Indies. The Generic term is Curaçao, and if redistilled clear is called triple sec.
COLLINS Tall, cool punch-like drinks. Any basic liquor with lime or lemon juice, over ice cubes in a frosted glass and sugar and soda water added. (Tom=Gin, John=Whiskey, Joe=Scotch)
COOLER A low alcohol drink consisting of either white or red wine mixed with either 7-UP, ginger-ale, club soda and or a citrus juice. Commercially bottled coolers of the latter variety have become extremely popular in recent years.
CORDIALS Sweetened spirits distilled from fruits, seeds, herbs & peels, same as liqueur.
CREAM OF COCONUT A coconut syrup used in many exotic drinks.
CREME DE… An all-purpose term indicating a liqueur in which one flavor is dominant. flavors include almond, celery, d’anana (pineapple), noisette (hazelnut), mocha (coffee), rose (vanilla and roses), the` (tea), fraise (strawberry) and violette/yvette (violets)
CREME DE BANANA A sweet liqueur flavored with bananas.
CREME DE COCOA A rich, chocolate-flavored liqueur, made from cacao and vanilla beans, quite sweet and syrupy, available in two colors: white & brown.
CREME DE CASSIS A dark, medium-sweet liqueur flavored with black currants.
CREME DE MENTHE A mint-flavored moderately sweet liqueur that comes in green or white.
CREME DE NOYAUX A liqueur made from fruit pits that possesses a bitter almond taste.
CREME YVETTE A very sweet, violet-flavored liqueur, made in the United States by Jacquin.
CUARENTE Y TRES A brandy based liquor from Spain containing 43 ingredients and a hint of vanilla. Also known as Licor 43.
CURAÇAO Generic term for liqueur made from the dried skins of small green bitter curaçao oranges. Curaçao may be blue, white, or orange in color. The taste is the same for all three.
DRAMBUIE A famous whiskey liqueur consisting of Highland malt scotch whiskey, heather honey, & herbs.
DRY A term applied to any form of wine or liqueur to denote a lack of sweetness. “Dry” champagne is, however, not as free of sugar as “brut”
EGG WHITE An egg white is an excellent way to put a head on a drink. It also cuts harshness and makes for a smoother taste. Always add the egg white before the liquor.
EZRA BROOKS A quality tennessee whiskey.
FALERNUM A sweet syrup of Caribbean origin made from ginger, almonds, limes, and other various fruits and herbs. Falernum, like grenadine, contains little or no alcohol, and is used to flavor or sweeten mixed drinks.
FERNET-BRANCA An extremely bitter Italian herbal apertif or digestif made from cinchoma bark, gentium, rhubarb, calamus, angelica, myrrh, chamomile and peppermint. It is often employed as a stomach settler and/or hangover remedy. It’s classified as bitters.
FINLANDIA A high-proof (94) popular vodka imported from Finland.
FIX A sour drink, usually made with pineapple syrup and crushed ice.
FIZZES Made from liquor, citris juices and sugar. Shaken with ice and strained into a highball glass. Soda “fizz” water is then added. Any carbonated beverage even champagne may be used.
FLIPS An egg nog and fizz combination. Made with liquor, egg, sugar, and shaved ice, shaken well, and Sprinkled with nutmeg.
FORBIDDEN FRUIT An American liqueur made from shaddock (grapefruit) and cognac
FRAISETTEE Cordial made from alcoholic syrup, white wine and strawberries.
FRAMBOISE Cordial made from raspberries,with high a alcohol content.
FRANGELICO A hazelnut liqueur from Italy.
FRAPPES A drink made by packing a glass with crushed ice and pouring liqueur over it.
GALLIANO A sweetish, golden, Italian liqueur with an herby, spicy taste.
GEORGE DICKEL A quality Tennessee whiskey.
GIN Gin is basically grain alcohol, mostly corn (75%) with some malted barley (15%) and other grains (10%) thrown in. It is then redistilled with or through juniper berries and botanicals such as coriander seed, cassia bark, orange peels, fennel seeds, anise, caraway, angelica root, inis root, licorice, lemon peel, almonds, cassia bark, cardomann seeds, cinnoman bark, bergomat and cocoa. It is this secondary process that imparts to each gin its particular taste. Most of the gin now produced is London dry, which is clean light, unsweet, and perfect for making for martinis. The Dutch still produce a sweeter, more robust version of their own called Hollands gin, which, while is unsuitable for mixing purposes is drunk neat and cold. Gin does not require aging.
GLENFIDDICH A famous high-quality single malt brand of unblended Scotch whiskey made by William Grant of Glenfiddich in the Glenlivet region of the Scottish Highlands.
GLENLIVET The greatest name in Scotch whiskey. The ultra whiskey-producing area in scotland is a 900 square mile chunk of territory on the river spey in the eastern portion of the Scottish highlands. It is there that the most famous whiskeys are produced in the Glenlivet style.
GOLDEN RUM Also known as anejo, a light-bodied rum of golden color from Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. This rum, though still of the light bodied type, has more taste and pronounced character than white rum.
GOLDWASSER Orinally made by Danzig in 1598, goldwasser is a spicy citrus flavored liqueur with 22k gold flakes mixed in.
GRAIN-NEUTRAL SPIRITS Otherwise known as grain alcohol, alcohol distilled from grain at 190 proof. Colorless and tasteless, it is used in making blended whiskeys and, as well as gin, gin, vodka, homemade liqueurs and other liquors.
GRAND MARNIER An orange-flavored cognac based French liqueur of the curaçao type.
GRAPPA An Italian brandy distilled from the pulpy mass of skins, pits, stalks left in the wine press after the juice of the grapes have been extracted. Young grappa is fairly fiery, but mellows with age.
GRENADINE A sweet syrup flavoring for drinks made from pomegranate juice, containing little or no alcohol.
GROG Originally a mixture of rum and water that was issued to sailors in the royal navy and later improved with the addition of lime juice and sugar. Now a grog is any kind of drink usually made with a rum base, fruit and various sweeteners and served hot or cold in a large mug or glass .
HIGHBALLS Any liquor served with ice, soda, plain water, ginger-ale or other carbonated beverages.
HOLLANDS GIN (Genievive) The type of old-style gin still produced and favored by the Dutch. Hollands gin is hearty, robust, and sweet, not for mixing. The Dutch like it cold and neat, often with herring.
IRISH MIST A famous liqueur produced in Ireland, consisting of Irish whiskey and heather honey.
IRISH WHISKEY The Irish have been making whiskey for 700 years and are said to have invented the stuff. The main difference between Irish and Scotch whiskey is that Irish Whisky is entirely lacking in the smoky taste that characterizes Scotch. The reason for this is that the Scots use peat in the kilns in which they dry their malt, while the Irish use coal. Irish whiskey is distilled from a grain mixture that consists of malted as well as unmalted barley, along with small proportions of wheat, oats, and rye. Irish whiskey tends to be old (at least seven years) and more mature than Scotch, probably because it is not purchased at the same rate as Scotch. Full-bodied, unblended Irish whiskeys produced in pot stills have a very pronounced character, which makes them very unpopular with many american palates. There are many blended Irish whiskeys that are lighter and less strong in character. The distillery at Bushmills in County Antrim dates from 1608 and is believed to be the oldest in the world. Irish whiskey is unique in that it is the only whiskey distilled 3 times.
JACK DANIEL’S A whiskey of the bourbon type, made in Tennessee, which is perhaps the most famous whiskey made in America. The Jack Daniel’s distillery in Lynchburg, Tennessee, dates from 1866 and is the oldest registered distillery in the United States. Jack Daniel’s is made according to the sour-mash process, mellowed by a process of filtration through sugar maple charcoal.
JAEGERMEISTER This complex, aromatic concoction containing some 56 herbs, roots and fruits has been popular in germany since its introduction in 1878. It may be used as cocktail bitters but is more frequently consumed as an apertif or after dinner drink.
JAMAICAN RUM Full-bodied, pungent rum, dark in color, and decidedly heavier and richer in taste than light bodied rums produced elsewhere in the Caribbean. High-quality Jamaican rums, such as Myer’s, are usually drunk straight.
JULEPS Made with Kentucky bourbon and fresh mint leaves (muddled, crushed or whole), served in an ice frosted glass with shaved ice and a mint garnish.
KAHLUA Coffee liqueur originating in Mexico made from mexican coffee beans.
KIRSCHWASSER A strong, dry black cherry fruit brandy made by both the Germans and the French.
KUMMEL A cordial liqueur of Dutch origin made from caraway seeds, cumin seeds, coriander seeds and aniseed, with herb flavors added.
LIGHT RUM Rums lighter in body though not necessarily in color than their dark, heavy-bodied Jamaican cousins. Light rums may be white, “silver”, or golden in color. They usually hail from Puerto Rico, Cuba, and the Virgin Islands.
LIGHT WHISKEY American whiskey, lighter in taste and body than its conventional whiskey predecessors. It is distilled at a much higher proof (161 to 189) than traditional whiskeys and aged in reused barrels rather than in new charred barrels.
LILLET An increasingly popular French apertif, light and dry, that comes in two versions, white and red.


LIQUEUR An alcoholic beverage that is manufactured by adding flavorings such as strawberry, orange, or almond to a distilled spirit. the flavorings can be added in one of three fashions; steeping, percolating/filtering, and redistilling. Combinations of flavors, such as mint, chocolate, vanilla, and coffee are also used. Because of the way they are produced, the differences in quality among liqueurs are dramatic. Some liqueurs, especially those manufactured in Europe, are still made by natural processes and contain natural ingredients. Unfortunately, many of the larger liqueur firms, including most American firms, use chemical flavor concentrates in the manufacture of their liqueurs. Where such chemical concentrates are used, the law stipulates that the liqueur must be designated on the label as “artificial”, or “imitation”. One line of liqueurs still manufactured entirely by natural process is France’s Marie Brizard, Bols of Holland (which makes superb triple-sec, and curaçao), and the original Amaretto di Saronne.
LIQUOR Alcoholic beverage most often distilled, rather than fermented.
LONDON DRY GIN The type of clear dry gin popular in Britain and the United States, highly suited to mixing drinks in general and martinis in particular.
LOW BALL A short drink consisting of spirits served with ice alone, or with water or soda in a short glass. Also known as an on-the-rocks or old-fashioned.
MALIBU A jamaican coconut flavored rum liqueur.
MANDERINE NAPOLEAN A liqueur made from manderine orange flavored cognac.
MARASCHINO A very sweet white cherry liqueur made from the marasca cherry of dalmatia, Yugoslavia. This liqueur is sometimes used in sours in place of sugar.
MARIE BRIZARD French producer of high quality liqueurs.
METAXA A strong, sharp-tasting, aromatic Greek brandy.
MIDORI MELON LIQUEUR A pale green liqueur of Japaneese origin that tastes of fresh muskmelon or cantaloupe.
MIST A glass packed with crushed ice to which spirits are added, usually straight.
MULL A warm drink containing wine, sugar, spices, and possibly a liquor. Also a verb meaning to warm, spice, and sweeten, a technique that is applied to both wine and ale.
MYER’S RUM A famous line of high-quality dark Jamaican rums.
NAPOLEAN BRANDY The term is related to age and usually means a cognac that is at least 5 years old.
NEAT A straight shot of any spirit taken in a single gulp, usually without any accompaniment, also called a shooter.
NOILLY PRAT An excellent and well known brand of French dry vermouth that is perfectly suited to the making of dry martinis.
ORANGE BITTERS Made from the dried peel of the bitter Seville oranges, orange bitters are less aromatic and fruitier then the more popular and sophisticated Angostura bitters.
ORANGE FLOWER WATER A light, non-alcoholic preparation based on the oil of orange blossoms, used as a flavoring in drinks.
ORGEAT A syrup with a pronounced almond flavor.
OUZO an anise flavored liqueur of Greece, usually served on the rocks. Also an Absinthe substitute.
PARFAIT AMOUR Cordial made of citron, cinnamon, coriander, and brandy.
PASSION FRUIT A liqueur made in Hawaii from peaches or mangos.
PEANUT LOLITA A liqueur made from peanuts.
PEAR LIQUEUR A Hungarian made liqueur, some even have a pear in the bottle.
PEPPERMINT SCHNAPPS A mint flavored liqueur similar to creme de menthe, but lighter bodied and less sweet.
PERNOD A famous French anise-flavored liqueur and Absinthe substitute.
PERRIER A highly effervescent bottled water that the French use in highballs instead of club soda. It has a sharp edge that works well as a counterpoint to the stickiness of fruit juices. Highly popular on this side of the Atlantic, Perrier can be taken alone or with lime juice.
PETER HEERING A famous, deep red, cherry-flavored liqueur made in Denmark, formerly known as Cherry Heering.
PEYCHOUD’S BITTERS Made in louisiana from an old closely guarded french family recipe. It is a pungent anise flavored bitter.
PICK-ME-UP Any concoction designed to allay the effects of overindulgence in alcaholic beverages.
PIMM’S CUP A Pimm’s No. 1 is a liqueur-style prepackaged preperation with a gin base. Pimm’s No. 2 has a whiskey base, while No. 3 is a rum base and No. 4 a brandy base.
POUSSE-CAFE A sweet, multilayered after-dinner drink. Success in making it depends upon keeping each layer seperate and distinct from the others-a neat trick. The secret is knowing the relative heaviness of of the various liquids that make up the Pousse-cafe.
PRALINES A New Orleans liqueur that recreates the butter pecan/brown sugar/vanilla flavor of the traditional praline candy
PROOF The measure of the strength of the alcohol. one degree of proof equals one-half of one percent of alcohol. I.E., 80 proof is 40% alcohol.
PRUNELLA A liqueur made from meat, plum pits, figs, and vanilla beans.
RICKEY A drink that is a cross between a collins and a sour. It consists of lime or lemon juice, club soda, and alcohol. Unlike the collins and sour, it contains no added sugar.
ROCK AND RYE A fruit juice that combines rock candy, rye whiskey and fruit slices.
RUM Rum can be made from 2 different raw materials: it can be distilled directly from the fermented juice of crushed sugar cane, or, once the sugar is extracted, it can be made from the remaining molasses. Some rums contain dunder, which is a residue from the previous distillation and makes for a more pungent product. Three main types of rum are made in the West Indies today. Very light(white or silver) rums hail from the Virgin Islands or Puerto Rico. These require little aging and are relatively tasteless and oderless. Golden rum, also known as anejo, though still of the light-bodied type, has more taste and pronounced character. Darker, aromatic, full bodied rums such as Myer’s are produced in Jamaica. These are distilled by a slower and different fermentation process, which allows for a fuller richer, molasses like body to develop. All rum is colerless when first distilled, and those that are aged for only a year are often colored with caremel. Even heavy bodied rums that are aged in charred oak casks for as long as twenty years are subject to artificial coloring. Medium and heavy bodied rums are usually aged between two and twenty years.
RYE The oldest native American whiskey, originally manufactured in the 1600s by Scotch and Irish settlers in New York. Rye is a very full bodied drink with a pronounced character, and perhaps for that reason, it has faded in popularity in the land of its origin to the point where it lags behind all other varities of whiskey in consumption. Many people confuse rye with blended whiskey, but the two are far from being the same. Rye must be made with at least 51% rye grain, the rest being corn and barley. Rye is aged in in new charred oak barrels for at least 2 years.
SABRA An orange flavored liqueur with a hint of chocolate, from Israel.
SAKE This traditional drink of Japan, a bit on the sweet side, is commonly referred to as “rice wine”, when in fact it is actually rice beer. Although it resembles a wine in taste and appearance, it is not made from grapes. It is fermented from rice and malted barley. Sake is usually served warm, as the heat brings out its superior bouquet.
SAMBUCA An Italian liqueur flavored with anise. The Italians often serve it “with flies”, which is actually 3 or 4 coffee beans on top of a glass of sambucca which is then flamed.
SANGAREE Made with whiskey, gin, rum, or brandy, with port wine floated on top, or with wine, ale porter or stout, with a sprinkle of nutmeg.
SCHNAPPS The word “schnapps” (from the German Schnappen, to snap) refers to a mixture of vodka, gin, brandy or other spirit. In Scandanavia the word is snaps and almost always means Akvavit. In the U.S. the term has taken on a new meaning to identify a whole new generation of intensely flavored, sweet, inexpensive liqueurs of moderate strength (22 to 30% alcohol by volume). The Dekuyper brands of Applebarrel and Peachtree schnapps, while not the first in the U.S market,are generally credited with launching the schnapps craze due to a technical breakthrough that yielded a fresh rather than cooked fruit flavor. Other flavors such as cola, cinnamon, rootbeer, tropical(hot shot), butter scotch, strawberry hazelnut, lemonade, apricot, peppermint, blueberry, bubble gum, tequila, and numerous others are making the schnapps a dominant force in the liqueur market. The most unique schnapps has to be Gold schnapps, which is peppermint schnapps with very fine flakes of gold foil added in.
SCOTCH Scotch whiskey is produced only in Scotland. Some Scotch whiskeys sold in the United States are produced in Scotland and then bottled in the U.S. Most are blends of malt whiskeys and grain whiskeys and typically contain the products of fifty or more distilleries, with the better and more expensive brands containing more malt than grain. Some Scotches are blends of different malts and these are known as vatted malts. In recent years, unblended scotches or single malts like Glenfiddich have achieved a considerable popularity.
SHOOTER A straight shot of spirits taken neat.
SLINGS Made like sangarees with the addition of lemon juice and a twist of lemon peel. Served in an old fashioned glass.
SLIVOVITZ A brandy made from plums, fermented and distilled. Very high alcohol content.
SLOE GIN Sloe gin is a liqueur made from the sloe berry, a kind of small, wild plum, which is soaked in gin.
SMASHES Small juleps, served in an old fashioned glass. Made from muddled sugar, ice cubes, whiskey, gin, rum or brandy and soda water.
SOUR MASH The term is usually applied to bourbon whiskey; this whiskey is made from a blended grain mash consisting of new mash and a portion of mash from a preceding mash.
SOURS Made of lemon juice,ice, sugar, with any basic liquor.
SOUTHERN COMFORT The oldest American liqueur, well known the world over, Southern Comfort is a blend of bourbon, peaches, and peach liqueur. It is dry and strong (100 proof) as liqueurs go. Produced in St. Louis.
STEINHAGER A German gin
STOLICHNAYA A high quality vodka produced in the Soviet Union and favored by many serious vodka drinkers on the other side of the iron curtain, where they enjoy vodka without mixers of any type. Some store their Stoli in the freezer, where it thickens up slightly, and serve it in chilled liqueur glasses.
STRAIGHT WHISKEY In the United States, a blended straight whiskey is a blend of several mature rye or bourbon whiskeys, as opposed to a blended whiskey in which bourbon or rye whiskey is mixed with an inferior whiskey or a grain-neutral spirit.
STREGA Cordial made from orange peel, spices and very strong spirits, very sweet. Italian in origin.
SWEDISH PUNCH (Caloric Punch) a Scandanavian liqueur made from batavia, arak, tea, lemon peel and 70 other spices. Also called caloric punch for its warming properties.
SWIZZLE Originally a tall rum cooler filled with cracked ice that was swizzled with a long twig or stirring rod or spoon rotated rapidly between the palms of the hands to produce frost on the glass.
TENNESSEE WHISKEY Tennessee whiskey is made in the same way as a sour-mash bourbon whiskey except that the tennessee whiskey is filtered through charcoal from hard Tennessee maple trees.
TEQUILA Tequila is a product of the mezcal plant. (specifically the blue agave) One misconception is that mezcal and mescaline are related; only the words mezcal and mescal are alike. All tequilas are mezcals, but the very finest of the mezcals. True tequila is produced in a very small region of Mexico, around the town of Tequila in the state of Jalisco. Tequila must be distilled at least twice, and quality gold tequilas are aged in wood three years. Jose Cuervo, a high quality tequila is widely available in the United States and is usually drunk straight. Harsher, white tequilas are often treated with the “three pals” or los tres cuates treatment, in which the participant takes a good lick of salt from the back of his hand, knocks back a slug of tequila, and then quickly sucks on a lemon or lime slice. The tequila’s that have met the Mexican standard of quality are stamped DGN on the label. Mezcals are not regulated like tequila is and often harsher tasting, plus there’s the worm in the bottom.
TIA MARIA A coffee flavored liqueur from Jamaica. Dryer than Kahlua, Tia Maria is Jamaican rum based and flavored with spices.
TODDY Originally a hot drink made with spirits, sugar, spices such as cinnamon, cloves, etc and a lemon peel mixed with hot water and served in a tall glass. Toddy’s can also be cold.
TONIC WATER Another term for quinine water, and a great mixer.
TRIPLE SEC A highly popular sweetener and flavoring agent in many drinks, triple-sec is the best known form of curaçao, a liquer made from the skins of the curaçao orange. Cointreau is a high quality brand of triple sec.
TUACA Italian brandy based liqueur flavored with vanilla, citrus, almond, coconut, orange and cocoa.
VANDERMINT A liquid after dinner chocolate mint is the best way to describe this liqueur from the netherlands.
VERMOUTH Though the product is mostly an Italian/French undertaking, the word comes to us from the German Vermutwein, meaning wormwood wine. While wormwood is indeed one of the many botanicals that goes into its manufacture, vermouth has escaped the stigma that has followed absinthe. Actually, vermouth is a highly sophisticated product of a great many botanical flavorings such as cloves, nutmeg, seeds, marjoram, angelica root, gentian, nutmeg, linden, elder flower, iris root, citrus peels, and over a hundred others. The French (dry)make it by selecting and combining their botanicals, then pouring mixture of fortified wine and mistelles over them. The brew is allowed to steep for a few weeks; the wine is then drawn off and the process repeated until all the flavor has been extracted from the botanicals. A selection of these flavored wines are blended together and then mixed with unflavored wines, Brandy is added to raise the alcohol level, and the vermouth is chilled almost to the freezing point to eliminate any sediment. The Italian (sweet) vermouth is red, richer in flavor and more syrupy.
VODKA By United States law, vodka must be colorless, odorless, and tasteless, a combination that has made it the great universal mixer of our time and the most popular selling spirit today with 18% of the market. Vodka was unknown in the U.S. 40 years ago and yet it has been around since the 14th century in Russia when at one time there were 4000 brands available. That and the fact that it is less likely to induce a hangover or show up on ones breath than other varities of alcoholic drinks have combined to make it the most popular spirit in the United States. A popular myth about vodka is that it is made from potatoes. Though it was made that way in the past and could still be made that way, it is usually made from grain-wheat, corn, or rye. The grain is crushed and mixed with water to produce the mash, which is then infused with yeast. Once fermentation takes place, it is then put through a continous still to obtain the purest possible grain-nuetral spirit. Water is added to reduce its alcoholic content to 40 or 50% (80 or 100 proof). There is no aging.
WHISKEY The Irish invented it and in Gaelic, it means “the water of life”. In the Unites States and Ireland, the word is spelled with an e, the British, Scots, and the Canadians usually drop the e. All basic whiskeys, whatever the type, are made from one type of grain or another Straight whiskeys are bottled from the casks in which they are aged, with water added to reduce their proof. Blended whiskeys are of two types: Blended straight whiskeys are a blend or combination of different straight whiskeys of the same general type. Many Scotches and bourbons fit this description. However, “blended whiskeys” as the term is used in the United States, refers to whiskeys in which a straight whiskey has been blended with grain nuetral spirits. The basic varieties of whiskey are blended, bourbon, Canadian, corn, rye, Scotch and Tennessee. The grains used to make whiskey are corn, rye, wheat and barley.
YUKON JACK A Canadian whiskey based liqueur, flavored with citrus and herbs.

BEER TERMINOLOGY

Abbey
Commercial Belgian beers licensed by abbeys. Not to be confused with Trappist ales.
Adjuncts
Materials, like rice, corn and brewing sugar, used in place of traditional grains for cheapness or lightness of flavor.
Ale
The oldest beer style in the world. Produced by warm or top fermentation.
Alt
Dark brown top-fermenting beer from Düsseldorf.
Alpha acid
The main component of the bittering agent in the hop flower.
Attenuation
The extent to which brewing sugars turn to alcohol and carbon dioxide.
Beer
Generic term for an alcoholic drink made from grain. Includes both ale and lager.
Bitter
British term for the pale, amber or copper-colored beers that developed from the pale ales in the 19th century.
Bock or Bok
Strong beer style of The Netherlands and Germany.
Bottle-conditioned
Beer that undergoes a secondary fermentation in the bottle.
Brew kettle
See Copper
Cask-conditioned
Beer that undergoes a secondary fermentation in the cask. Known as “real ale”, closely identified with British beers.
Copper
Vessel used to boil the sugary wort with hops.
Decoction mashing
A system mainly used in lager brewing in which portions of the wort are removed from the vessel, heated to a higher temperature and then returned. Improves enzymic activity and the conversion of starch to sugar in poorly modified malts.
Dry-hopping
The addition of a small amount of hops to a cask of beer to improve aroma and bitterness.
Dunkel
A dark lager beer in Germany, a Bavarian specialty that predates the first pale lagers.
Entire
The earliest form of porter, short for “entire butt”.
Ester
Flavor compounds produced by the action of yeast turning sugars into alcohol and carbon dioxide. Esters may be fruity or spicy.
Fining
Substance that clarifies beer, usually made from the swim bladder of sturgeon fish; also known as isinglass.
Framboise or Frambozen
Raspberry-flavored lambic beer.
Grist
The coarse powder derived from malt that has been milled or “cracked” in the brewery prior to mashing.
Gueuze
A blend of Belgian lambic beers.
Helles or Hell
A pale Bavarian lager beer.
Hop (Lat: Humulus Lupulus)
Herb used when brewing to add aroma and bitterness.
IBU
International Bitterness Units. An internationally-agreed scale for measuring the bitterness of beer. A “lite” American lager may have around 10 IBU’s, an English mild ale around 20 units, an India Pale Ale 40 or higher, an Irish stout 55 to 60 and barley wine 65.
Infusion
Method of mashing used mainly in ale-brewing where the grains are left to soak with pure water while starches convert to sugar, usually carried out at a constant temperature.
Kölsch
Top-fermenting golden beer from Cologne.
Kräusen
The addition of partially-fermented wort during lagering to encourage a strong secondary fermentation.
Kriek
Cherry-flavored lambic beer.

 

Lager
The cold-conditioning of beer at around 0 degrees Centigrade to encourage the yeast to settle out, increase carbonation and produce a smooth, clean-tasting beer. From the German meaning “to store”.
Lambic
Belgian beer made by spontaneous fermentation.
Lauter tun
Vessel used to clarify the wort after the mashing stage.
Malt
Barley or other cereals that have been partially germinated to allow starches to be converted into fermentable sugars.
Mash
First stage of the brewing process, when the malt is mixed with pure hot water to extract the sugars.
Märzen
Traditional Bavarian lager brewed in March and stored until autumn for the Munich Oktoberfest.
Mild
Dark brown (occasionally pale) English and Welsh beer, lightly hopped. The oldest style of beer that once derived it color from malt cured over wood fires. One of the components of the first porters.
Milk stout
Stout made with the addition of lactose, which is unfermentable, producing a beer low in alcohol with a creamy, slightly sweet character.
Pilsner or Pilsener or Pils
International brand name for a light-colored lager.
Porter
Dark – brown or black – beer originating in London.
Priming
Addition of sugar to encourage a secondary fermentation in beer.
Reinheitsgebot
Bavarian beer law of 1516 (the “Purity Pledge) that lays down that only malted grain, hops, yeast and water can be used in brewing. Now covers the whole of Germany.
Shilling
Ancient method of invoicing beer in Scotland on strength. Beers are called 60, 70 or 80 shilling.
Sparging
From the French esparger, to sprinkle; Sprinkling or spraying the spent grains in the mash tun or lauter tun to flush out any remaining malt sugars.
Square
A traditional, open fermenting vessel.
Steam beer
American beer style saved by the Anchor Brewery in San Francisco.
Stout
Once an English generic term for the strongest (“stoutest”) beer in a brewery. Now considered a quintessentially Irish style.
Trappist
Ales brewed by monks of the Trappist order in Belgium and The Netherlands.
Union
Method of fermentation developed in Burton-tn-Trent using large oak casks.
Ur or Urtyp
German for original.
Weizen or Weisse
German for wheat or white beer.
Wort
Liquid resulting from the mashing process, rich in malt and sugars.