FOOD AND ACCOMPANIMENTS

Accompaniments are highly flavoured seasonings of various
kinds offered with certain dishes. The object of offering
accompaniments with certain dishes is to improve the flavor of the
food or to counteract its richness, eg. apple sauce with roast pork.
Many dishes have separate accompaniments and as they are
not always mentioned on the menu, the waiter must know them. He
should always have specific accompaniments ready for service at
the right time. Hot adjuncts come with the dish from the kitchen, but
cold sauces are often to be found at the buffet or sideboard. They
should be served directly with a dish to which they belong. They
should be served from the guest’s left on to the top right of his plate
(not on the rim). While serving from a sauceboat, the boat should be
on an underdish or small plate, carried on the palm of the left hand.
In serving, the sauceboat, lip should point towards the guest’s plate.

The spoon, or ladle, should be passed over the lip. Sauces are not to
be poured from a boat.

THE ORDER OF COURSES FOR DINNER MENU

A full-course dinner is seldom served today, but the
sequence of courses should be respected even if some are omitted.
The general standard at present is for a four- or five-course meal to
be served for dinner. Theoretically, however, all the courses of a fulldinner
menu must be studied and learnt by heart so that perfect
compilation of menus can be achieved.


Three-Course Dinner Menu:
1. Hors d’oeuvre or soup
2. Main course with vegetables and potatoes or salad
3. Sweet or savory


Four-Course Dinner Menu:
1. Hors d’oeuvre or soup
2. Fish course
3. Main course with vegetables and potatoes or salad
4. Sweet or savory


Five-Course Dinner Menu:
1. Hors d’oeuvre or soup
2. Fish course
3. Main course with vegetables and potatoes or salad
4. Sweet
5. Savory


Six-Course Dinner Menu:

1. Hors d’oeuvre or soup (potage)
2. Fish (poisson)
3. Entrée
4. Main (releve or remove) with (pommes et legumes ou
salade)
5. Sweet (entremets)
6. Savory (savoureux ou bonne bouche)


Seven-Course Dinner Menu:
1. Hors d’oeuvres or soup
2. Potage
3. Poisson
4. Entrée
5. Releve / Remove – Pommes et Legumes
6. Roast (roti) – Salade
7. Entremets or Bonne / Bonne Bouche


Eight-Course Dinner Menu:
1. Hors d’oeuvres
2. Postage
3. Poisson
4. Entrée
5. Releve / Remove – Pommes et Legumes
6. Roti–Salade
7. Entremets
8. Savories / Bonne Bouche

FRENCH CLASSICAL MENU

1) Hors D’oeuvre

Being of a highly seasoned and piquant in nature, this course
is used to manipulate the appetite for the dishes that are to follow. In
recent years, hors d’oeuvres have gained in popularity, and now
appear even on simple menus in modest eating places. Although the
actual term “hors d’oeuvres” applies to the service of various cold
salads and morsels of anchovy, sardines, olives, prawns, etc., it also
covers whatever items are served before the soup.
Examples of such hors d’oeuvres:
· Melon Melon Frappe
· Oysters Huitres Nature
· Smoked Salmon Saumon Fumee
· Caviar Caviar
· Grapefruit Pamplemousse
· Salami
· Potted Shrimps Petites Pots de Crevettes
· Shrimp, Prawn or Lobster Cocktail
· Fruit Cocktail Coupe Florida
· Souses Herrings Hareng Dieppoise
· Pate of Goose Liver Pate de Foie Gras
There are also quite a number of items that may be served
hot, such as Bouchees, Croquettes, Fritters, etc., and these are
known as ors d’oeuvres chaud.




2) Potage
The French have three separate words for soup. Consommé
is a clear, thin broth. Soupe refers to a thick, hearty mélange with
chunks of food. Potage falls somewhere between the two in texture,
content and thickness. A potage is usually puréed and is often thick,
well-seasoned meat or vegetable soup, usually containing barley or
other cereal or a pulse (e.g. lentils). Today, the words soupe and
potage are often used interchangeably. On good-class à la carte
menus, a fish soup is also usually offered for selection, the two most
common being “Bisque d’Homard” or “Bouillabaisse.”




3) Oeufs
Oeufs are the dishes made from egg. The omelette is the
most popular item, but there are other styles of cooking and
preparation of eggs such as boiled, en cocotte, poached or
scrambled. This course is not included in the dinner menu. Some
examples are omelette, Espagnole, Oeuf en Cocotte a la crime,
Oeuf poche florentine.




4) Farineux
This is Italy’s contribution to the courses of the menu. It
includes different kinds of rice and pasta. Pasta dishs are spaghetti,
lasagne and gnocchi. Pasta is made from durum wheat semolina or
milled durum wheat to which water is added to form a dough. It can
be coloured and flavoured in various ways. There are more than 200

varieties of pasta. The ingredients, size, shape and colour determine
the type of pasta. Some examples include Spaghetti Bolognaise,
Lasagne Napolitaine and Macaroni au gratin.




5) Poisson
Poisson are the dishs made from fish. Fish, being soft-fibred,
prepares the palate for the heavier meats that follow. Deep-fried or
grilled fish dishes do not generally occupy a place on the “classical
dinner menu,” but are freely offered on the shorter-coursed luncheon
menu. This also applies to the coarser members of the fish family,
and the dinner menu is usually comprised of the finer fish prepared
and cooked in the more classical manners. Ideal fish for dinner menu
compilation are: Sole, Salmon, Halibut, Escallops, etc. Rarely seen
on a menu for the evening meal are: Cod, Bass, Haddock, Brill,
Hake, and Plaice. One deep-fried fish dish, which normally finds
itself on the dinner menu, however, is “Blanchaille”, and this only
because Whitebait are so light and in no way too filling for the
comfort of the guest.




6) Entrée
This is the first of the meat courses on a menu. It is always a
complete dish in itself. It is despatched from the kitchen garnished
and sauced in the manner in which it is intended to be served. The
“entrée” is always cooked and garnished in an artistic manner and
usually served with a rich sauce. The “entrée” can be devised of
almost anything light. This course consists of all the small cuts of
butcher’s meats, usually sautéed, but never grilled. Grilled steaks,
cutlets and chops invariably replace the joints as the roast (roti)
course.
The following items, with their appropriate garnishes and
sauces, can be successfully served as entrées.
· Brains (Cervelles)
· Liver (Foie)
· Oxtail (Queue de Boeuf)
· Kidneys (Rognons)
· Calves Head (Tete de Veau)
· Trips (Tripes)
· Rump, Entrecote and Tournedo Beefsteaks
· Lamb Chops and cutlets – Noisettes and Filet Mignons
· Pork Chops and cutlets
· Escallops, Granadins, Medallions, and Cotes of Veal
· Sweetbreads – (Ris de Veau / Agneau)
· Hot Souffles or Mousses
· Bouchees
· Pilaws and Rizottos
· Small cuts or portions of poultry, individually cooked, are
also served as entrées
In first-class hotels and restaurants, all entrées are cooked,
garnished and presented for service by the sauce cook (saucier).



7) Relevé
This is the main meat course on the menu, and is commonly
known as the “piece de resistance.” It may consist of joint of any of
the following:
Lamb (Agneau) Chicken (Poulet)
Beef (Boeuf) Duckling (Caneton)
Veal (Veau) Fowl (Poulard)
Ham (Jambon) Tongue (Langue)
Pork (Pore)
These joints would be cooked by the sauce cook in a firstclass
hotel or restaurant, by any method except roasting. They are
usually cooked on casserole, braise or poêle. Generally cooked in a
sauce and served with it.




8) Sorbet
This course is a rest between courses. It counteracts the
previous dishes, and rejuvenates the appetite for those that are to
follow. Normally served between the releve/remove and the roti, it is
a water and crushed ice slush flavored as a rule with champagne
and served in a glass. A frozen dessert made primarily of fruit juice,
sugar, and water, and also containing milk, egg white, or gelatin.
Some examples are Sorbet Italian and Sorbet creme de menthe.
Russian or Egyptian cigarettes are often passed around during this
course.




9) Roti – Roast
This course normally consists of game or poultry and is often
included in the entree. Each dish is accompanied with its own
particular sauce and salad. Some examples are Roast chicken,
Braised duck and Roast quail.
10) Legumes
These are vegetable dishes that can be served separately as
an individual course or may be included along – with the entrée,
relevé or roast courses. Some examples are Cauliflower mornay,
Baked potato and Grilled tomatoes.




11) Entremets
Entremets on a menu refers to desserts. This could include
hot or cold sweets, gateaux, soufflés or ice-cream. Some examples
are Apple pie, Chocolate souffle and Cassata ice-cream.




12) Savoureux

A dish of pungent taste, such as anchovies on toast or
pickled fruit. They are seved hot on toast or as savoury soufflé.
Welsh rarebit, Scotch woodcock, Canape diane are some of the
examples. Fromage (Cheese) is an alternative to the outdated
savoury course, and may be served before or after the sweet course.
It is usually served with butter, crackers and occasionally celery.
Gouda, Camembert and Cheddar are some examples of cheese.




13) Desservir
Dessert is a course that typically comes at the end of a meal.
The French word desservir mean “to clear the table.” This is the fruit
course usually presented in a basket and placed on the table, as part
of the table decor, and served at the end of the meal. All forms of
fresh fruit and nuts may be served in this course. Common desserts
include cakes, cookies, fruits, pastries and candies.

BASIC PRINCIPLES OF MENU PLANNING

1) Cold and warm dishes are listed separately.
2) Appetizers, soups, seafood and main courses are listed in
separate groups.
3) In every group the lighter dishes are listed before the richer
ones.
4) Salads should be highlighted.
5) If offered, low-calorie foods should be specially indicated, and
the number of calories should be stated.
6) If foods are prepared with organically grown ingredients, this
fact should be highlighted to the discriminating customer.
7) Every dish should be described clearly and simply, in an
appetizing way, without being too flowery.

8) House specialties and seasonal items should correspond to
the season and should change accordingly. Use a clip-on
menu or special insert to attract attention to them.
9) The dessert selection should be listed on a separate
attractive card. The menu should inform the guests that such
a card is available.
10) The numbering of menu items can save time and confusion,
especially with many of the new computerized cash registers.
Numbering, however, discourages communication between
guests and the service staff and thus does not help promote
sales. For an easy compromise, place one numbered menu
at the register or where orders are relayed to the kitchen so
that one can punch in the guest’s order by number; the guest,
however, orders the actual foods with words, not numbers.8) House specialties and seasonal items should correspond to
the season and should change accordingly. Use a clip-on
menu or special insert to attract attention to them.
9) The dessert selection should be listed on a separate
attractive card. The menu should inform the guests that such
a card is available.
10) The numbering of menu items can save time and confusion,
especially with many of the new computerized cash registers.
Numbering, however, discourages communication between
guests and the service staff and thus does not help promote
sales. For an easy compromise, place one numbered menu
at the register or where orders are relayed to the kitchen so
that one can punch in the guest’s order by number; the guest,
however, orders the actual foods with words, not numbers.